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Academic Writing

Professors tend to define academic writing as research-based, objective and formal in style and tone, thesis-driven, and deductively organized (that is, where your introduction presents your argument or interpretation and forecasts the organization for the paper).

Genres of academic writing commonly assigned in introductory composition courses in the U.S. tend to rely on exposition and analysis, including personal narratives, Book Reviews, Literacy Narratives, Reports on subjects and concepts, Rhetorical Analysis, causes and effects.

  • Begin the Annotated Bibliography at the top of a new page
  • Center the title of the Annotated Bibliography page
  • Arrange these sources in alphabetical order
  • Review the components of an annotation
  • Review the parts of an annotation

Organize your research efforts and extend your thinking on a research topic by creating an annotated bibliography.

An annotated bibliography is a list of reference sources and critical summaries/evaluations of the citations. Typically, researchers will:

  1. Provide the citation information for each source following the rules of a particular bibliography style (e.g., MLA Style, APA Style, Chicago Style). Logically, you want to use the citation style in your bibliography that you will use in your research report. Examples of citation sources include books, articles, Internet sites, newspapers, and audiovisual materials.
  2. List each reference source in alphabetical order.

"Why are things like this? What is the effect, or result, of this?" and "What causes this?"--These questions guide authors as they analyze or argue about causal relationships, such as "What is the effect of a college education on income?" View fascinating reports on various cause/effect topics and then explore your own causal relationship. Improve your critical thinking skills.

Unlike explanations of processes, which follow a chronological order of events, cause and effect texts are deeply speculative and tentative, relying on causal reasoning and argument. Your purpose is to answer

Thus far, you’ve learned how to critically approach a variety of texts, how to make the most of different writing spaces like blogs and wikis, how to begin the brainstorming process by freewriting and drawing from personal experience, and how to identify and trace the ongoing conversations about particular issues. The bibliographic essay asks you to evaluate the conversation about the topic you’ve chosen by demonstrating through supporting evidence how the conversation has—or has not—changed over time.