By now you know that all arguments operate according to an internal logic. No matter which of the four rhetorical appeals the author uses, her thesis will succeed or fail based on the soundness of her argument. In classical logic, an argument is sound only if all of its premises are true and the argument is valid. And an argument is valid only if its conclusion follows logically from the combination of its premises. For example, Plato’s classic syllogism, “All men are mortal; Socrates is a man: therefore, Socrates is mortal” is both valid and sound. Its premises are true, and the conclusion is undeniable given an understanding of the definitions of the terms.

  • Ad Hominem (Argument to the Person): Attacking the person instead of the argument. For example, "You say I shouldn't drink so much, but you drink every day." The validity of the argument (drink less) can't be based on the behavior of the person making the argument. Instead, the validity of the argument should be evaluated on its own terms—separate from the person making the claim.

"Fallacious Pathos" was written by Kendra Gayle Lee, Jessica McKee, and Megan McIntyre

  • Argument by Dismissal: Rejecting an idea without providing a reason or explanation for its dismissal. For instance, there is a tendency to cry "socialism" when faced with calls for a single-payer system in the ongoing health care debate. Such a dismissal of the single-payer system may include the observations, "This is America!," or, "You are free to live elsewhere if you prefer." While we do live in the United States and people are free to live wherever they want, neither of these observations actually addresses the argument, either for or against the single-payer system. The observer relies on the simple (and fallacious) dismissal of the opposing viewpoint.

  • Appeal to Nature: Suggesting a certain behavior or action is normal/right because it is "natural." This is a fallacious argument for two reasons: first, there are multiple, and often competing, ways to define "nature" and "natural." Because there is no one way to define these terms, a writer cannot assume his or her reader thinks of "nature" in the same way he or she does. Second, we cannot assume that "unnatural" is the same as wrong or evil. We (humans) have made lots of amendments to how we live (e.g., wearing clothes, living indoors, farming) with great benefit.

Why is it that when you’re flipping through the pages of a magazine, walking through an art gallery, or browsing on the Internet, some images capture your attention more than others? Why are you drawn to particular photographs, advertisements, political cartoons, or protest posters?

We come across many images on a daily basis, but we rarely stop to think about what those images mean or about how they persuade us. Yet, images have power, which is why we need to understand how to analyze them. When you’re analyzing an image to understand the message it portrays, this is called visual rhetoric. Visual rhetoric is a means of communication that uses images to create meaning or to make an argument.

As you progress throughout college and into your professional life, it’s going to become increasingly important to remember what you read. You might say, “Well, it was important for me to remember what I read in high school, because I was tested on the material and even had pop quizzes.” But that’s a different type of reading—you were reading to take a test or quiz, so you remembered the material temporarily. Do you still remember things you read in high school? How can you change the way you read now, in college, so that going forth you will be able to retain the things you learn from others’ writings? By annotating the margins of what you read, you can become a more active reader.

We need to be aware of how advertisers appeal to us, and we should think critically about the persuasive messages we encounter to ensure we are savvy, not passive, consumers. Because consumers purchase products with which they identify, it is important to examine the subtexts of advertisements as well as the role those subtexts play in determining what products men and women choose to associate with their personal identities.

Typically, the first thing we look for in a photograph is ourselves. Advertisers recognize this fact and use it to their advantage. Because of this, we can learn a lot about a company’s target customer base by observing the people featured in its advertisements.

To what social class do you belong? How do you know? Can others tell by how you talk, dress, and act? By how much money you have? By your level of education? By your occupation? Despite the presumed cultural ideal of social equality in America, key markers such as income and education are often used for social classification.

Advertising executives and marketing experts more than likely hope that we remain oblivious to the underlying messages that ads contain and that we perceive their work purely from entertainment and consumerist perspectives rather than for the purpose of critical assessment.

Advertisements comprise thirty percent of the material aired on television, and many of us will view more than two million commercials in our lifetimes.  The A. C. Nielson Company reports that, by the age of sixty-five, the average U.S. citizen will have spent nine years of his or her life watching television—twenty-eight hours a week, two months a year. And in one year, the average youth will spend nearly twice as many hours in front of the tube (fifteen hundred hours) as he or she spends at school (nine hundred hours).[1] We may turn the box off eventually, but the advertisements remain. We are surrounded by them: they cover billboards, cereal boxes, food wrappers, bathroom stalls, tee shirts, and tennis shoes. They seep into our music, our newscasts, and our conversations. We recognize corporate logos and hum jingles ("Ba Da Ba Ba Ba"). In short, advertisements inform every aspect of our lives. Yet we often give them very little thought. We may make aesthetic judgments about them (e.g., "That commercial was funny" or "That commercial was stupid") or view them as innocent means to purchasing ends, but we rarely acknowledge them as messages that require critical attention.

 Become proficient at quickly locating useful information via the library and Internet.

As repositories of our collective knowledge, libraries and the Internet host our cultural heritage, the memory of our present and past civilizations. Admittedly, though, the cornucopia of information accessible via the Internet and archived in libraries can be overwhelming, particularly if you are just becoming accustomed to the research process.

Conducting library and Internet research helps you quickly find the information you need. This page provides useful suggestions about how to conduct Boolean searches, for instance, and offers advice about how to identify whether you should begin your research using the Open Web, the Gated Web, or the Hidden Web.

URL stands for Uniform Resource Locator.

A URL is just the internet address for any given webpage:

WC1

Conducting research for papers, reports, and other assignments involves more than just typing a word or phrase into a search box. Understanding both the systems and the sources sets a foundation for retrieving relevant research. Before you jump into a search, take the time to think about where you should start and what types of sources you seek.

Understand how to search for books, journals, government documents, and media that you can access through your college or university library.

Consult librarians when in doubt about where to obtain information.

 Use encyclopedias and dictionaries to research and develop a focused analysis about your question or topic.

Review research reports, pamphlets, or statistics published by the Government Printing Office (GPO).

Check your answers

A) eBay page?

1. http://pages.ebay.com

YES

This is an eBay page. The domain name is ebay.com

2. >http://movies.half.ebay.com

YES

This is an eBay page. The domain name is ebay.com (“movies” and “half” indicate subdomains).

3. http://pages.ebey.com

NO

This is not an eBay page. Note that “ebay” is misspelled as ebey.

4. http://68.112.112.34:8866/ebay.htm

NO

This is not an eBay page. The first single slash (/) is not preceded by the domain name ebay.com.

http://This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..2

NO

This is not an eBay page. Notice that there is no slash (/) after “ebay.com.”

6. >http://This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

NO

This is not an eBay page. The actual domain is @ebay.com, not ebay.com.  (@ebay.com is as different from ebay.com as zebay.com, bebay.com, mebay.com, etc.  One character can make all the difference.)

7. >http://signin-ebay.com

NO

This is not an eBay page. If the hyphen were a period, we’d be fine.  But it isn’t.  As in the example above with @, the hyphen could be any character and be just as wrong.

8. http://www.ebay.com/electronics/ipad

YES

This is an eBay page. The domain name is ebay.com.  The first single slash (/) is directly preceded by .ebay.com

9. >http://www.ebay.deals.com

NO

This is not an eBay page. The domain name is deals.com (not ebay.com).

10. http://www.ebay.pro

NO

This is not an eBay page. The domain name is ebay.pro (not ebay.com).

11. >http://www.ebay.com.bb/motors/motorcycles

NO

This is not an eBay page. The domain name is ebay.com.bb (not ebay.com).

12. http://www.ebay.com/itm/A-Planet-of-Viruses-by-Carl-Zimmer-2011-Hardcover-/191063912359

YES

This is an eBay page. The domain name is ebay.com.  The first slash is directly preceded by .ebay.com

The domain name in the following URL is bernadinec.com (not  bankofamerica.com). Notice that bernadinec.com is what appears just before the first single slash (/):

http://www.bankofamerica.com.sas.signon.do.detect.2.signin.sessionid.
rmrlfbqjlokcjpczgs.oxcvsvcpdsoeeseytje.yucfnjtidbvnujxrwjmsea.zydyilpnchtjrriiszti.
zydyilpnchtjrriiszti.zydyilpnchtjrriiszti.zydyilpnchtjrriiszti.nuyovbuskl.bernadinec.com/
index.php?pageType=708XeMWZamp;cust=This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.p;l
=lWXS3AlBXVShqAhQRfhgTDrf=nttps://sitekey.bnkofamerica.com/sas/signon.do?
SignIn&SMSESSIONID=ASERTFGUY2I94O0389GYBH23JNMKUYH83JM
N12I90U82HJNASDKOASD9AS8D&iv=90832yhIopOWjos