Sample Contextualizing for the Source

Being Fluent with Information Technology explores why people need to understand and utilize information technology. Published by The National Academies in 1997, the book is written by the Committee on Information Technology and Literacy, including Lawrence Snyder, University of Washington, Chair; Alfred V. Aho, Lucent Technologies, Inc.; Marcia Linn, University of California at Berkeley; Arnold Packer, Johns Hopkins University; Allen Tucker, Bowdoin College; Jeffrey Ullman, Stanford University; Andries Van Dam.

Sample Quote

In Chapter 1, the Committee explores why people need to understand and utilize information technology, arguing that technological knowledge is especially crucial in the ever-changing workforce: "If the nation is to obtain the maximum benefit from its investments in information technology, a labor pool capable of using it appropriately is necessary" (Committee 7).

Sample Paraphrase

In Chapter 1, the Committee explores why people need to understand and utilize information technology, arguing that technological knowledge is especially crucial in the ever-changing workforce. Interestingly, the Committee notes that the U.S. won't benefit from revolutionary new technologies unless the labor force is better trained (Committee 7).

Sample of "Qtd. In" Convention (use when your source cites another source)

According to the Committee on Information Technology and Literacy, information technology is a fundamental tool in the work place because "in today's labor market employees can no longer enjoy a job for life" (7). On the educational front, Papert describes it best when he states that "computers can be means for educators to support the development of new ways of thinking and learning" (qtd. in Committee p.xiv). A democratic society will be better off when the majority of its citizens are informed about the system they live in.

Explanation: The Committee on Information Technology and Literacy cites page xiv from Papert's text as follows:

Papert, Seymour. Mindstorms: Children, Computers, and Powerful Ideas. 2nd ed. New York: Basic Books, 1999. Print.

However, it would be dishonest for the reader of Being Fluent with Information Technology to act as if he or she read Mindstorms: Children, Computers, and Powerful Ideas. As a result, by using the "qtd. in" convention, he or she can indicate that this is a secondary quote, not a primary source.

Sample of "Paraphrased In" Convention (for use when your source paraphrases another source)

According to the Committee on Information Technology and Literacy, information technology is a fundamental tool in the work place because "in today's labor market employees can no longer enjoy a job for life" (7). On the educational front, Papert argues that educators can empower students by showing them new ways to think and learn (para. in Committee p.xiv). A democratic society will be better off when the majority of its citizens are informed about the system they live in.

Summary of Entire Work

This book outlines some of the major personal and business uses of information technology. It also makes suggestions about how to gain knowledge in the field, as well as the main points of training employees in information technology to make the use of computers most effective.

Sample Citation:

Committee on Information Technology Literacy. Being Fluent with Information Technology. Washington, D.C.: National Academies P, 1999. Print.

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