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Use Commas Around Nonrestrictive Parenthetical Elements

"Use Commas around Nonrestrictive Parenthetical Elements" was written by Joseph Moxley, University of South Florida

You should limit the number of times that you interrupt the flow of a sentence by placing modifying words between the subject and its verb. When you do introduce such appositives, participial phrases, or adjective phrases or clauses, you must determine whether the modifiers are restrictive or nonrestrictive. Essentially, restrictive modifiers add information that is essential to the meaning of the sentence, whereas nonrestrictive modifiers add information that is not essential. The best way to determine whether a modifier is restrictive or nonrestrictive is to see if taking it out changes the meaning of the sentence.

Restrictive: Lawyers who work for McGullity, Anderson, and Swenson need to take a course in copyediting.

In this case the relative clause is essential to the meaning of the sentence. If you embedded the clause in commas, then the meaning would change, suggesting that all lawyers need a course in copyediting.

Restrictive: The lawyer who has worked on this case for three years thinks that we have no chance of winning.

In this case the relative clause is essential to the meaning of the sentence. In other words, the sentence refers to only the lawyer who has worked on this case. The discussion is restricted to her.

Nonrestrictive: The lawyers, who have an office downtown, think that we have no chance of winning.

Because the location of the lawyer's office is superfluous to the gist of the sentence, it should be set off by commas.


Other comma resources:

Photos on this page courtesy of University of Pennsylvania, University Communications.

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Kyle Stedman is assistant professor of English at Rockford University, where he teaches first-year composition, digital rhetoric, and creative writing. He studies rhetorics of sound, intellectual property, and fan studies. On QuizUp, his highest scores are in Lost (the TV show)..."

Episode 11: Composing Creatively
Plugs, Play, Pedagogy Podcast
stream below // download the mp3 // subscribe on iTunes, Stitcher, or Podigee Transcript available as a Google Doc here; check it out for more links, and feel free to comment on anything that needs comments. Part 1: Why this book? At the beginning of this episode, you'll hear me talk to Danita Berg, one of the co-editors of Creative Composition: Inspiration and Techniques for Writing Instruction. We discuss the different training that MFAs and PhDs in rhet/comp get, the need for this book, and where...
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