Jennifer Janechek

  1. A Guide to Textual Analysis

    As a reader, a developing writer, and an informed student and citizen, it is extremely important for you to be able to locate, understand, and critically analyze others’ purposes in communicating information. Being able to identify and articulate the meaning of other writers’ arguments and theses enables you to engage in intelligent, meaningful, and critical knowledge exchanges. Ultimately, regardless of...

    Published on May 15th 2012

  2. Analyzing Ads

    Advertising executives and marketing experts more than likely hope that we remain oblivious to the underlying messages that ads contain and that we perceive their work purely from entertainment and consumerist perspectives rather than for the purpose of critical assessment. But to critically examine the techniques and appeals advertisers use to lure us into supporting certain products, services, claims, or...

    Published on Feb 03rd 2012

  3. Annotating the Margins

     As you progress throughout college and into your professional life, it’s going to become increasingly important to remember what you read. You might say, “Well, it was important for me to remember what I read in high school, because I was tested on the material and even had pop quizzes.” But that’s a different type of reading—you were reading to...

    Published on Jan 21st 2012

  4. Citing Paraphrases and Summaries (APA)

    How should a paraphrased passage be cited? When paraphrasing a passage, it is essential to express the ideas of the author in your own original words; however, the author’s message and meaning should always be preserved. Charges of plagiarism can be avoided by including the proper citation of the work you are drawing from in your paraphrase. The APA requires a...

    Published on Jun 30th 2012

  5. Cliches

    "As luck would have it, at the drop of a hat I was at my wits’ end." What does this sentence say? Anything? Nothing? Nothing new—this sentence contains three clichés strung together. Just as you want to avoid archaic and discipline-specific language (jargon), you also want to avoid incorporating overused phrases (cliches) into your writing. Granted, all language is reused....

    Published on Mar 07th 2012

  6. Compelling Conclusions

    In what manner have you reiterated your ideas? What have you left your reader to think about at the end of your paper? How does your paper answer the “So what?” question? As the last part of the paper, conclusions often get the short shrift. We instructors know (not that we condone it)—many students devote a lot less attention to...

    Published on Nov 30th 2011

  7. Distinguishing between Main Points and Sub-claims

    As you learn in “Critical Reading Practices,” an effective argument contains a thesis, supporting claims, and evidence to support those claims. The thesis is the writer’s central argument, or claim, and the supporting claims reinforce the validity of the thesis. When reading another writer’s argument, it is important to be able to distinguish between main points and sub-claims; being able...

    Published on May 15th 2012

  8. Documenting Sources: APA

    Formatting the Title Page (APA) References Page Template (APA) Formatting the Abstract Page (APA) Formatting the First Main Body Page (APA) Formatting Headings and Subheadings (APA) Using Footnotes (APA) Citing Paraphrases and Summaries (APA) Omitting Words from a Direct Quotation (APA) Short Quotations (APA) Block Quotations (APA) Emphasizing Words in a Direct Quotation (APA) Using Brackets in a Direct Quotation...

    Published on Aug 14th 2014

  9. Documenting Sources: MLA

    MLA Formatting Resources Formatting In-Text Citations (MLA) Formatting the Works Cited Page (MLA) Examples of Paraphrases and Summaries (MLA) MLA Paper Template MLA Checklist MLA Tutorial    

    Published on Mar 20th 2010

  10. Exercise: Analyzing Evidence

    Exercise: Analyzing Evidence Take whatever project draft on which you’re currently working and underline all of your quotes and paraphrases. Then, highlight lines in which you directly address (analyze) sourced material. After you've done these two steps, write a 250-word (minimum) reflection that answers the first question and complete the second task by filling out the worksheet below. At first...

    Published on Feb 09th 2012

  11. Exercise: In-text Citations (MLA)

    Look at the sentences below, each of which contains an incorrectly formatted in-text citation. Specify the error made in each sentence; then, write a new sentence in which the in-text citation is correctly formatted. 1. The parlor metaphor of writing describes writing as entering into a conversation, as in arriving late and a parlor and talking to guests who have...

    Published on Feb 17th 2012

  12. Formatting Headings and Subheadings (APA)

    How should section and subsection headings be formatted in APA style? A research paper written in APA style should be organized into sections and subsections using the five levels of APA headings. APA recommends using subheadings only when the paper has at least two subsections within a larger section. Notice how sections contain at least two smaller subsections in the example below:...

    Published on Jul 10th 2012

  13. Formatting In-text Citations (MLA)

    How might you format your in-text citations so that they're more compliant with MLA guidelines? You already know why MLA formatting guidelines are an important part of an academic paper, but let’s face it—who can remember all those rules about when and where certain citation information is requisite and when and where particular punctuation is appropriate? Thankfully, memorizing all of MLA’s...

    Published on Feb 17th 2012

  14. Formatting the First Main Body Page (APA)

    Placement Beginning at the top of a new page, the main body of the research paper follows the abstract and precedes the References page. Comprised of the introduction, method, results, and discussion subsections, the main body acts as the third major section of the document and typically begins on the third page of the paper. General Format Like the rest...

    Published on Nov 08th 2013

  15. Formatting the Title Page (APA)

    Placement As the first major section of the document, the title page appears at the top of the first page. Components The title page is comprised of a few key elements: Running head (or shortened title) and label Page number Full title of the paper Author byline: first name(s), middle initial(s), and last name(s) Affiliated Institution(s) or Organization(s) Author note...

    Published on Jan 23rd 2014

  16. Formatting the Works Cited Page (MLA)

    Whenever you incorporate outside sources into your own writing, you must provide both in-text citations (within the body of the paper) and full citations (in the Works Cited page). The in-text citations point your reader toward the full citations in the Works Cited page. That's why the first bit of information in your in-text citation (generally, the author's name; if no...

    Published on Apr 18th 2012

  17. Incorporate Evidence into a Research Paper

    When you think of the term “evidence,” what comes to mind? CSI? Law and Order? NCIS? Certainly, detectives and law enforcement officers use evidence to prove that a criminal is guilty. What’s more, they use different types of evidence to find and convict the offending person(s), such as eyewitness accounts, DNA, fingerprints, and material evidence. Just as detectives use various types of evidence,...

    Published on Nov 17th 2011

  18. Introduce Evidence

    Can the reader distinguish between your ideas and those of your sources? You don’t want to take credit for the ideas of others (that would be plagiarism), and you certainly don’t want to give outside sources the credit for your own ideas (that would be a waste of your time and effort). So, as a writer, you should distinguish between...

    Published on Feb 09th 2012

  19. Introductions

    Successful introductions grab the reader’s attention. An engaging and compelling introduction entices your readers. Think of introductions like movie previews - they are the writer’s chance to "sell" the content of the essay to the reader. Just like a movie trailer will show the potential audience key moments from the film, an introduction should entice the reader, generating interest in...

    Published on Nov 30th 2011

  20. Jargon

    Have you ever read the first few sentences of a scholarly article and been so annoyed by the denseness of the writing? Take this line for example: “On the contrary, I proffer that the ontological necessity to determine the nature of dwelling resides within the viewer.” What does this mean? I have no idea, either. That’s because I’m not a...

    Published on Mar 07th 2012

  21. MLA Checklist

    1. Is the heading in the upper left-hand corner of the first page?  2. Does the heading include: Your name? Your Instructor's name? The course name? The date? 3. Does the paper have an original title (other than something like "Final Paper")? Is the title presented without being bolded, italicized, or placed in quotation marks 4. Does the paper have...

    Published on Feb 17th 2012

  22. MLA Template

    Line Break______________

    Published on Feb 17th 2012

  23. Non-traditional Types of Evidence

    Though you may be the most familiar with the genre of research papers, not all your writing in ENC 1101 and 1102 will require research. So, you may be tempted to think that you won’t need evidence for such writings. This is an incorrect assumption, because all formal writing (and even the majority of informal writing) requires evidence of some...

    Published on Jun 27th 2014

  24. Omitting Words from a Direct Quotation (APA)

    What punctuation should be used to indicate omitted words from a direct quotation? When a portion of a sentence (or sentences) is not included in a quotation, three ellipsis points should be typed in place of the omitted material. However, ellipsis points do not need to be included at the beginning or end of a quotation; the reader will assume...

    Published on Jun 20th 2012

  25. Online Forums: Responding Thoughtfully

    Some instructors assign weekly or biweekly discussion board posts or other regular informal writing assignments, and oftentimes they require you to respond to your peers’ writing. Responding to your classmates can be an awkward or uncomfortable task because  you might not want to offend them or say something silly. As a result of this pervasive discomfort, students often just respond...

    Published on May 16th 2012

  26. Plagiarism

    Plagiarism involves The theft of someone else's wordsThe theft of someone else's ideasThe failure to properly cite someone's ideas, either directly or in a paraphrase. Plagiarism can be deliberate or the result of carelessness. When incorporating outside sources, it’s important to be conscious of what constitutes plagiarism and to avoid plagiarizing material. Ignorance of plagiarism and intellectual property is a serious...

    Published on Feb 26th 2020

  27. References Page Template (APA)

    Learn how to format the References page of your paper in APA style. For more information about referencing sources in APA, see also: Formatting the References Page (APA) Formatting In-Text Citations (APA)

    Published on Jan 23rd 2014

  28. Relate Sources to Thesis/Research Question

    Even if the connection is readily visible, authors should still follow up a piece of sourced material with an explanation of its relevance to the author’s point, purpose, and/or thesis. Such connections (“analysis”) should be made directly following the sourced material.   Let’s say that I’m writing a research paper that suggests offshore drilling should be banned, and my thesis...

    Published on Feb 09th 2012

  29. Relevance of a Source in relation to Claims

    How is this source relevant to your thesis and purpose? Many emerging writers struggle with connecting sourced material to their claims and to their thesis. Oftentimes, this is because they’re too close to their work and think that the connection between claim and evidence is completely apparent to the reader. Even if the connection is readily visible, authors should still...

    Published on Feb 09th 2012

  30. Using Footnotes (APA)

    When should footnotes be used? The APA suggests two instances in which footnotes may be used: Content Footnotes: to offer further information on a topic that is not directly related to the text. As content footnotes should be concise, avoid writing lengthy paragraphs or including extraneous information. Copyright Permission Footnotes: to cite adapted or reprinted materials in the paper, especially data sets,...

    Published on Jun 30th 2012