Jennifer Janechek

  1. Analyze Your Use of Evidence

    Exercise: Analyzing Evidence Take whatever project draft on which you’re currently working and underline all of your quotes and paraphrases. Then, highlight lines in which you directly address (analyze) sourced material. After you've done these two steps, write a 250-word (minimum) reflection that answers the first question and complete the second task by filling out the worksheet below. At first...

    Published on Feb 09th 2012

  2. Analyzing Ads

    Advertising executives and marketing experts more than likely hope that we remain oblivious to the underlying messages that ads contain and that we perceive their work purely from entertainment and consumerist perspectives rather than for the purpose of critical assessment. But to critically examine the techniques and appeals advertisers use to lure us into supporting certain products, services, claims, or...

    Published on Feb 03rd 2012

  3. Anecdote, Anecdotal Evidence

    Anecdote An anecdote is a short narrative explaining an event or experience of some sort. It is a particularly useful form of support when writing in the memoir and narrative genres. Let’s take a look at an example of a claim made for a literacy narrative that lacks an ensuing anecdote: When I first began to write academically in high...

    Published on May 06th 2021

  4. Annotating the Margins

    As you progress throughout college and into your professional life, it’s going to become increasingly important to remember what you read. You might say, “Well, it was important for me to remember what I read in high school, because I was tested on the material and even had pop quizzes.” But that’s a different type of reading—you were reading to...

    Published on Jan 21st 2012

  5. APA Body

    Placement Beginning at the top of a new page, the main body of the research paper follows the abstract and precedes the References page. Comprised of the introduction, method, results, and discussion subsections, the main body acts as the third major section of the document and typically begins on the third page of the paper. General Format Like the rest...

    Published on Nov 08th 2013

  6. APA Footnotes

    When should footnotes be used? The APA suggests two instances in which footnotes may be used: Content Footnotes: to offer further information on a topic that is not directly related to the text. As content footnotes should be concise, avoid writing lengthy paragraphs or including extraneous information. Copyright Permission Footnotes: to cite adapted or reprinted materials in the paper, especially data sets,...

    Published on Jun 30th 2012

  7. APA Headings and Subheadings

    Definition APA headings and subheadings refers to the rules for formatting sections of documents in the 7th Edition of the American Psychological Association's Publication Manual. A research paper written in APA style should be organized into sections and subsections using the five levels of APA headings.  Related Concepts: Notice how sections contain at least two smaller subsections in the example...

    Published on Jul 10th 2012

  8. APA Paraphrase

    How should a paraphrased passage be cited? When paraphrasing a passage, it is essential to express the ideas of the author in your own original words; however, the author’s message and meaning should always be preserved. Charges of plagiarism can be avoided by including the proper citation of the work you are drawing from in your paraphrase. The APA requires a...

    Published on Jun 30th 2012

  9. APA Quoting

    APA Quoting refers to the guidelines for in-text and block quotes according to APA—the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 7th Edition. Key Concepts: In-Text Quotations Whether they are used to provide evidence, support for an argument, or to illustrate an idea using another writer’s words, short quotations are valuable tools that can enhance any essay. Because short quotations...

    Published on Mar 07th 2022

  10. APA References

    Placement The References page is located at the end of the main body of the paper and begins at the top of a new page. Appendices, footnotes, and additional materials should follow after the References page. General Format Like the rest of the paper, the References page should be double-spaced and typed in Times New Roman, 12 pt. The running...

    Published on Jan 23rd 2014

  11. APA Title Page

    What is an APA Title Page? An APA Title Page refers to a Title Page for a longer document that is formatted according to the conventions prescribed by the American Psychological Association's Publication Manual. The title page is comprised of four elements and two optional elements: Related Concepts: Archive; Scholarly Conversation; Organization Placement The Title Page appears at the top...

    Published on Jan 23rd 2014

  12. Cliché

    Cliché is an overused word, phrase or opinion. "As luck would have it, at the drop of a hat I was at my wits’ end." What does this sentence say? Anything? Nothing? Nothing new—this sentence contains three clichés strung together. Just as you want to avoid archaic and discipline-specific language (jargon), you also want to avoid incorporating overused phrases (clichés)...

    Published on Mar 07th 2012

  13. Compelling Conclusions

    Conclusions generally address these issues: How can you restate your ideas concisely and in a new way?What have you left your reader to think about at the end of your paper?How does your paper answer the "so what?" question? As the last part of the paper, conclusions often get the short shrift. We instructors know (not that we condone it)—many...

    Published on Aug 07th 2019

  14. Connecting Evidence to Your Claims

    Connecting Evidence to Your Claims highlights ways to link evidence to claims in a reader-based way. Many emerging writers struggle with connecting sourced material to their claims and to their thesis. Oftentimes, this is because they’re too close to their work and think that the connection between claim and evidence is completely apparent to the reader. Even if the connection...

    Published on May 15th 2021

  15. Distinguish Your Ideas from Your Sources

    Can the reader distinguish between your ideas and those of your sources? You don’t want to take credit for the ideas of others (that would be plagiarism), and you certainly don’t want to give outside sources the credit for your own ideas (that would be a waste of your time and effort). So, as a writer, you should distinguish between...

    Published on Feb 09th 2012

  16. Distinguishing between Main Points and Sub-claims

    When reading another writer’s argument, you need to distinguish between main pointssub-claims Being able to recognize the difference between main points and sub-claims will prove incredibly useful when composing your own thesis-driven essays. As you may know, a writer’s thesis articulates the direction they will take with their argument. For example, let’s say that my thesis is as follows: “smoking...

    Published on May 15th 2012

  17. Documenting Sources: MLA

    MLA Formatting Resources Formatting In-Text Citations (MLA) Formatting the Works Cited Page (MLA) Examples of Paraphrases and Summaries (MLA) MLA Paper Template MLA Checklist

    Published on Mar 20th 2010

  18. Evidence

    Definition Evidence is information that a writer, speaker, knowledge maker . . . weaves into discourse in order to substantiate claims When writers make claims, critical readers expect them to substantiate those claims with evidence (see Argumentation)a defining attribute of successful workplace and school-based writing (see reader-based prose vs writer-based prose). Related Concepts: Concrete, Sensory Language; Claim; Information, Data; Rhetorical...

    Published on Oct 29th 2019

  19. Exercise: In-text Citations (MLA)

    Look at the sentences below, each of which contains an incorrectly formatted in-text citation. Specify the error made in each sentence; then, write a new sentence in which the in-text citation is correctly formatted. 1. The parlor metaphor of writing describes writing as entering into a conversation, as in arriving late and a parlor and talking to guests who have...

    Published on Feb 17th 2012

  20. Formatting In-text Citations (MLA)

    How might you format your in-text citations so that they're more compliant with MLA guidelines? You already know why MLA formatting guidelines are an important part of an academic paper, but let’s face it—who can remember all those rules about when and where certain citation information is requisite and when and where particular punctuation is appropriate? Thankfully, memorizing all of MLA’s...

    Published on Feb 17th 2012

  21. Formatting the Works Cited Page (MLA)

    Whenever you incorporate outside sources into your own writing, you must provide both in-text citations (within the body of the paper) and full citations (in the Works Cited page). The in-text citations point your reader toward the full citations in the Works Cited page. That's why the first bit of information in your in-text citation (generally, the author's name; if no...

    Published on Apr 18th 2012

  22. Guide to Textual Analysis

    As a reader, a developing writer, and an informed student and citizen, it is extremely important for you to be able to locate, understand, and critically analyze others’ purposes in communicating information. Being able to identify and articulate the meaning of other writers’ arguments and theses enables you to engage in intelligent, meaningful, and critical knowledge exchanges. Ultimately, regardless of...

    Published on May 15th 2012

  23. Hypothetical Evidence

    Hypothetical Evidence is a “for instance” for your reader—a potential instance or example that might illustrate your claim in action. Key Concepts: Exemplification; Organization; Organizational Schema & Logical Reasoning A Hypothetical Example will often follow one of the following phrases or abbreviations: “for instance,” “for example,” “i.e.,” or “e.g.,” though the latter two, realize, will only follow a comma and...

    Published on May 06th 2021

  24. Introductions

    Successful introductions grab the reader’s attention. An engaging and compelling introduction entices your readers. Think of introductions like movie previews - they are the writer’s chance to "sell" the content of the essay to the reader. Just like a movie trailer will show the potential audience key moments from the film, an introduction should entice the reader, generating interest in...

    Published on Nov 30th 2011

  25. Jargon

    What is Jargon? Jargon is the use of technical terms used by a particular group (e.g., lawyers, doctors, engineers)confusing, unintelligible language; the use of complex or loaded terms that obfuscate meaning. The absence or presence of jargon affects the tone of the messagethe writer's, speaker's, or knowledge worker's . . . voice and, perhaps, persona. Related Concepts: Audience; Diction; Rhetorical...

    Published on Mar 07th 2012

  26. MLA Checklist

    1. Is the heading in the upper left-hand corner of the first page?  2. Does the heading include: Your name? Your Instructor's name? The course name? The date? 3. Does the paper have an original title (other than something like "Final Paper")? Is the title presented without being bolded, italicized, or placed in quotation marks 4. Does the paper have...

    Published on Feb 17th 2012

  27. MLA Format

    What is MLA Format? MLA Format refers to the formatting guidelines published by the MLA (Modern Language Association) for writers of research papers (see MLA Handbook, 9th Edition). Related Concepts: Annotated Bibliography; Intellectual Property; Page Design; Plagiarism MLA Font Select a readable font such as Times New Roman, and an easily legible font size (usually 10- to 12-point font). MLA...

    Published on Apr 28th 2022

  28. MLA Template

    Line Break______________

    Published on Feb 17th 2012

  29. Omitting Words from a Direct Quotation (APA)

    What punctuation should be used to indicate omitted words from a direct quotation? When a portion of a sentence (or sentences) is not included in a quotation, three ellipsis points should be typed in place of the omitted material. However, ellipsis points do not need to be included at the beginning or end of a quotation; the reader will assume...

    Published on Jun 20th 2012

  30. Online Forums: Responding Thoughtfully

    Some instructors assign weekly or biweekly discussion board posts (online forums) or other regular informal writing assignments, and oftentimes they require you to respond to your peers’ writing. Responding to your classmates can be an awkward or uncomfortable task because you might not want to offend them or say something silly. As a result of this pervasive discomfort, students often...

    Published on May 16th 2012

  31. Relate Sources to Thesis/Research Question

    Even if the connection is readily visible, authors should still follow up a piece of sourced material with an explanation of its relevance to the author’s point, purpose, and/or thesis. Such connections (“analysis”) should be made directly following the sourced material. Let’s say that I’m writing a research paper that suggests offshore drilling should be banned, and my thesis is...

    Published on Feb 09th 2012

  32. What is Plagiarism?

    Plagiarism involves The theft of someone else's wordsThe theft of someone else's ideasThe failure to properly cite someone's ideas, either directly or in a paraphrase. Plagiarism can be deliberate or the result of carelessness. When incorporating outside sources, it’s important to be conscious of what constitutes plagiarism and to avoid plagiarizing material. Ignorance of plagiarism and intellectual property is a serious...

    Published on Feb 26th 2020