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Joe Moxley, Founder, WritingCommons.org

Joe Moxley

Founder
WritingCommons.org

Dear Colleagues and Students,

At Writing Commons, we are happy with the overall success of our project. Since 2011, when we launched at WritingCommons.org, we have hosted 6,315,882 users who have reviewed over 11 million pages. We are thrilled that students and faculty find our site to be helpful. Our ongoing mission is to be the best writing textbook possible. We also happen to be free. While we cannot perhaps claim yet that we are the best possible textbook for technical writing or creative writing courses, we are working on that.

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This webtext will help you think through your audience as you complete your report, which will include

Many business professionals need to write a formal report at some point during their career, and some professionals write them on a regular basis. Key decision makers in business, education, and government use formal reports to make important decisions. As opposed to informational reports that offer facts and information without analysis, formal reports provide the end product of a thorough investigation with analysis. Although writing a formal report can seem like a daunting task, the final product enables you to contribute directly to your company’s success.

There are several different organizational patterns that may be used for formal reports, but all formal reports contain front matter (prefatory) material, a body, and back matter (supplementary) items. The body of a formal report discusses the findings that lead to the recommendations. The prefatory material is therefore critical to providing the audience with an overview and roadmap of the report. The following section will explain how to write a formal report with an audience in mind.

Analyzing your audience

As with any type of writing, when writing formal business reports, it is necessary to know your audience.  For example, if your audience is familiar with the background information related to your project, you don’t want to bombard them with details; instead, you will want to inform your audience about the aspects of your topic that they’re unfamiliar with or have limited knowledge of. In contrast, if your audience does not already know anything about your project, you will want to give them all of the necessary information for them to understand. Age and educational level are also important to consider when you write.  You don’t want to use technical jargon when writing to an audience of non-specialists.  These are just a couple of examples of different audience needs you will want to consider as you write your report.  There are several aspects of your audience that you want to take into account:  their gender and race/ethnicity, age/educational level, subject knowledge, and expectations--what they expect to learn from your report.

Gender and Race/Ethnicity

You don’t want to make assumptions about the gender, race, or beliefs of your audience.  Use gender neutral language such as “he or she” rather than simply “he” or use “they” and pluralize the nouns (e.g. Writers need to think about audience).  Don’t say anything that implies your reader has a certain gender, race, cultural identity, or belief system.  One important way to avoid doing this is to avoid using the word “you.” Writers always need to think about the implied meanings of their words.

Educational Level and Subject Knowledge

While age may not necessarily be an issue in the business world—your audience will almost all be adults—educational level and knowledge of your subject are important to consider when writing your report.  If you are writing for someone outside of your specific field, you will either need to exclude technical jargon or provide in-text reminders or indications of what specific terms mean or items are.  For example, if you work for an automotive company, and you are writing on behalf of mechanical engineers but for an audience of business professionals, you don’t want to assume that your audience knows the names of all of the parts that make up an engine; you will have to use terms they will recognize. In some cases, a glossary of terms may be appropriate.

Expectations and Research

What does your audience expect to get out of reading your report?  What is its purpose?  Make sure that you have specifically responded to the expectations of your boss, manager, or client.  If your audience expects you to have research, make sure you know what type of research they expect. Do they want research from scholarly journal articles? Do they want you to conduct your own research?  No matter what type of research you do, make sure that it is properly documented using whatever format the audience prefers (MLA, APA, and Chicago Manual of Style are some of the most commonly-used formats).  You also want to establish a strong ethos in your report.  Use confident language that shows that you have done your research and present them with the research.

For further information about what types of research you may want to include, see this article about research methods and methodologies.

Here are some questions to consider about your audience as you write:

  • What does your audience expect to learn from your report?
  • What type of ethos should you establish?
  • How much research does your audience expect you to have?
  • How current does your research need to be?
  • What types of sources does your audience expect you to have?
  • What is the age of your audience?
  • What is the educational level of your audience?
  • How much background information does your audience need?
  • What technical terms will your audience need defined?  What terms will they already be familiar with?
  • What is the cultural background of your audience?

Passive and Active Voice

A final note on audience: contrary to what is expected in other types of writing, in business reports, passive voice is sometimes preferred. If the action is more important than the person doing it, use passive rather than active voice.

A few phrases you might use include:

  • The data analyzed in this report shows . . .
  • This study was designed to analyze . . .
  • The data was collected . . .
  • The 500 students were surveyed
Cassandra Branham, Editor-in-Chief WritingCommons.org

Cassandra Branham

Editor-in-Chief
WritingCommons.org

Dear Colleagues and Students,

Welcome to Writing Commons, an open-education resource for instructors and students of writing across the disciplines. Our mission is to provide a high-quality, cost free resource to support students in the development of writing, research, and critical thinking practices.

This summer, we have been working on a site redesign in an effort to increase the usability of our site for both instructors and students. Our most significant change has been the inclusion of additional categories and subcategories to create a more intuitive hierarchy within the site.

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