A free, comprehensive, peer-reviewed, award-winning Open Text for students and faculty in college-level courses that require writing and research.

Welcome to Writing Commons,

Writing Commons, https://writingcommons.org, helps students improve their writing, critical thinking, and information literacy. Founded in 2008 by Joseph M. Moxley, Writing Commons is a viable alternative to expensive writing textbooks. Faculty may assign Writing Commons for their composition, business, technical, and creative writing courses. We are currently crowdsourcing submissions via an academic, peer-review process (see Contribute).

Rhetorical Appeal

Abbreviated Definition

Reflective Questions

Ethos

appeal to credibility

You may want to think of ethos as related to "ethics," or the moral principles of the writer: ethos is the author's way of establishing trust with his or her reader.

  • Why should I (the reader) read what the writer has written?
  • How does the author cite that he or she has something valid and
    important for me to read?
  • Does the author mention his or her education or professional
    experience, or convince me that he or she is a valid, educated, and experienced source?

Pathos

appeal to emotion

You may want to think of pathos as "empathy," which pertains to the experience of or sensitivity toward emotion.

  • How is the writer trying to make me feel, or what has he or she
    written that makes me want to do something?
  • What specific parts of the author's writing make me feel happy, sad,
    inspired, dejected, and so on?

Logos

appeal to logic

You may want to think of logos as "logic," because
something that is logical "makes sense"—it is reasonable.

  • What evidence does the writer provide that convinces me that his or her argument is logical—that it makes sense?
  • What proof is the author offering me?

Kairos

appeal to timeliness

You may want to think of kairos as the type of persuasion that pertains to "the right place and the right time."

  • Does the writer make claims that are particularly important given
    what is happening right now?
  • How is the author "making the most of the moment" or attempting
    to speak to the concern of his or her audience?

How to Use Writing Commons

Welcome to Writing Commons, the open-education home for writers. Writing Commons helps students improve their writing, critical thinking, and information literacy. Founded in 2008 by Joseph M. Moxley, Writing Commons is a viable alternative to expensive writing textbooks. Faculty may assign Writing Commons for their composition, business, STEM/Technical Writing, and creative writing courses.

Writing Commons houses eleven main sections: The Writing Process | Style | Academic Writing | Rhetoric | Information Literacy | Evidence and Documentation | Research Methods and Methodologies | New Media Communication | Professional and Technical Communication | Creative Writing | Reviews

The two best ways to navigate through Writing Commons are using the top menu navigation, called Chapters, or the left-hand navigation menu system.

Read more ...