- a unit of discourse, a chunk of information, that typically contains at least one sentence;
- a formatting technique, an element of visual language, that sorts chunks of information and illustrates relationships among ideas.
- organizational schema (e.g., deductive, inductive, or causal organizational order) — i.e., a method of organizing, recalling, and sharing information.
Paragraphs are a powerful formatting technique, an element of visual language. Paragraphs are visual cues that help readers understand how chunks of information relate to other chunks of information.
Readers love paragraphs because they aid comprehension and facilitate skimming. People enhance recall of information by chunking information into similar and dissimilar groups. For instance, to remember a phone call, we chunk it into parts to aid recall, remembering 813-974-9469 rather than 8139749469.
Unlike punctuation, which can be subjected to specific rules, no ironclad guidelines exist for shaping paragraphs. If you presented a text without paragraphs to a dozen writers or writing instructors and asked them to break the document into logical sections, you would receive, most likely, a variety of opinions about the best places to break the paragraph.
In part, where paragraphs should be placed is a stylistic choice.
- Some writers and Communities of Practice prefer longer paragraphs that compare and contrast several related ideas, whereas others opt for a more linear structure, delineating each subject on a one-point-per-paragraph basis. Paragraph style is shaped by the rhetor’s persona, tone, and voice,
- The rhetor’s genre dictates the length of paragraphs and practice of chunking paragraphs into sections under headers. For instance,
- newspaper articles or documents published on the Internet tend to have short paragraphs, even one-sentence paragraphs.
- articles in academic journals tend to have long sentences with loads of citations.
However, paragraphs do follow a logic. Paragraphs are not just a group of sentences about a single topic. Rather a paragraph builds upon the foundation laid out by the text’s thesis and works in harmony with the other paragraphs. Each paragraph should serve a specific purpose related to the thesis—to explain a relevant idea (transition and topic sentence); provide background information (introduce evidence/signal phrase); argue a supporting point (evidence); and/or offer a counterargument (evidence of counterclaim). A paragraph that does not serve any of these purposes may by unnecessary.
In order to construct a successful paragraph, be sure to include these necessary elements:
- Topic Sentences
- Introduce your evidence
- State your evidence
- Explain your evidence
- Summarize the points made in the paragraph.
In summary, paragraphs are not a mishmash of sentences, a puzzle. Ultimately, readers
- expect paragraphs to be about a single topic
- look for a topic sentence so they can skim through the paragraph
- expect paragraphs to follow a common organizational schema
- expect transitional language that clarifies relationships between and among paragraphs.
Paragraphs @ Writing Commons
- Flow, Transitions, Coherence @ Paragraph Level
- Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Citing Sources within Paragraphs
- Sentence Order within Paragraphs
- Topic Sentence
- Unity @ Paragraph Level
Note: When you are drafting, you need to trust your intuition about where to place paragraphs; you don’t want to interrupt the flow of your thoughts as you write to check on whether you are placing them in logical order. Such self-criticism could interfere with creativity or the generation of ideas. Before you submit a document for a grade, however, you should examine the structure of your paragraphs. To help you edit at the sentence level, see Edit Paragraphs.