Declarative (Conceptual) Knowledge

  • Be conscious of the two foundational ingredients of knowledge practices 

Declarative/conceptual knowledge refers to explicit, formal knowledge about Collaboration, Editing, Genre, Information Literacy, Invention, Mindset, Organization, Research, Revision, Rhetoric, Style, Writing Studies and Writing with Sources.

Experts in the academic field of Writing Studies and related academic disciplines (e.g., Information Systems, Communication, and Education) theorize and research these topics. As a consequence of their research, they often develop pedagogical advice–i.e., advice for teachers and students.

Here at Writing Commons, we aim to leverage the research and scholarship in Writing Studies to provide you with robust, research-based advice on improving your writing. And, we have organized this information in alphabetical order to make it easy to locate.

Below is a summary of ways Writing Commons can help you grow as a writer.


  • explore the importance of the Interpersonal Domain as a foundational 21st Century Workforce Competency
  • expedite co-authoring, teamwork, and peer review.
  • facilitate goal setting, planning, task coordination, and performance monitoring competencies.

Style & Editing

  • master proofreading strategies
  • adot critical perspectives to bring clarity to your writing. 
  • consult Standard English grammar, mechanics, and punctuation conventions


  • Evaluate shared textual expectations employed by Communities of Practitioners in academic, business, scientific, and literary contexts.
  • Be adept at analyzing genres and identifying the values and conventions that underlie them

Information Literacy

  • understand Information literacy competencies & explores their significance in post-truth contexts
  • contemplates ethical uses and misuses of information, including plagiarism and patchwriting
  • offers suggestions for weaving sources into texts
  • summarizes citations conventions for the MLA & APA citation styles

Invention & Revision

  • illustrates the generative nature of language
  • explores invention and visualization strategies to help you get started sooner rather than later. 

Mindset & Intrapersonal Competencies

  • puts the spotlight on your attitude and psyche as a communicator. 
  • stresses the importance of adopting a Growth Mindset as opposed to a Fixed Mindset
    • encourages you to reject the popular misconception that writing is a natural talent, a gift of one’s birth, DNA or zip code
  • illustrates how a Growth Mindset empowers you to enhance your intrapersonal competencies–that is your ability to moderate your emotions and set goals. 


  • explores common patterns for presenting information. 


  • explores the methods Communities of Practitioners use to generate, debate, and report knowledge claims;
  • summarizes widely held conventions–such as the need to cite sources, to avoid plagiarism, and to act ethically when working with subjects and texts;
  • explores epistemological assumptions underlying different research methodologies.


  • advises writers to consider their Rhetorical Situation throughout the time they are working on a document
  • identify Rhetorical Appeals in ways that respond to the particulars of the Rhetorical Situation