Substance

Substance refers to what a rhetor communicates. When employers, teachers, or the general public say someone's ideas, texts, or presentations lack substance, that's a harsh takedown. A body slam. A punch in the face. The thing is, as hard as that is to hear, sometimes it's right. Sometimes what we feel is on the page, isn't really there. Rather we can be so emotionally embroiled in a topic that we cannot look at it realistically. And sometimes we make assumptions that are just plain silly. Sometimes we assume our audience...

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Medium, Mass Media, Social Media

Medium, Mass Media, Social Media refer to the materials and tools rhetors use to compose, archive, and convey messages. have unique constraints and affordances.are a vital element of the rhetor's rhetorical situation. Medium is the singular form of Media, a collective noun. Media or Mass Media refers to television, newspapers, magazines, and radio. Thus, CNN is a medium, but CNN and Fox are Media. Social Media refers to online tools and communication ecosystems that facilitate social sharing and dialog (e.g., Instagram, Wikipedia, Twitter, & You Tube, Facebook.] Media is a...

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Editing

Editing refers to the processes rhetors engage in to refine their texts prior to publication or submission to clients, teachers, and other readers. For instance, editing may involve reorganizing a document so it is more informative and persuasive;making diction changes to adjust the tone for an intended audience;changing the sentence structure or organization of sentences in a paragraph; andproofreading a document to eliminate word-level and sentence-level errors. When editing, writers read through their texts, line-by-line, looking for problems related to Cliches, Coherence, Concision, Concrete Language, Diction, Editing, Figurative Language, Point...

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Ellipsis

Ellipsis Use ellipsis to indicate something is omitted from a direct quotation or to suggests and so on. . ., i.e., something the reader already knows that doesn’t need to be repeated. What is an ellipsis? An ellipsis is a punctuation mark that consists of three dots with a space before, after, and between them. Writers use this mark to represent a word, phrase, sentence (or more) that is omitted from a direct quotation. How should ellipses be used? When words are omitted from within two nearby sentences, insert the...

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Parentheses

Use parentheses to define words, acronyms, and add clarifications or cite sources Using Parentheses Parentheses (also called brackets in British English) are a punctuation mark used to contain text that is not part of the main sentence, but that is too important to either leave out entirely or to put in a footnote or an endnote. Since there are many reasons to use parentheses, be sure that the function of parentheses is always made clear to your readers. Reasons to Use Parentheses 1. To include extra information The first function...

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Dashes

Use dashes to set off an idea or an appositive within a sentence What is a dash? A dash is a punctuation mark used to set off an idea within a sentence and may be used alone or in pairs. Dashes interrupt a thought in a more dramatic way than a phrase enclosed in commas, but less theatrically than parentheses. To form a dash, type two hyphens—without a space before, after, or between them—and your word processor will convert them to a dash. How should dashes be used? To provide...

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Hyphens

Use hyphens to join compound words and avoid awkward or confusing word combinations How should hyphens be used? To join some compound words into one word when the word reflects a single conceptThe well-known doctor gained additional recognition when the results of her top-notch research were published.Hyphens are used only when the compound word precedes the noun it modifies--not when it follows it. For instance: The well-known actor was not as well known as she assumed. Mother-in-law, five-year-old, better-than-usualWith a small group of prefixes and suffixesex-wife, post-World War II, pre-2000, treasurer-electIn...

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Quotation Marks

Use punctuation marks to set off exact or spoken language What are quotation marks? One of the primary jobs of quotation marks is to set off exact spoken or written language. When writers use quotation marks correctly, they give credit to the original author and avoid plagiarism. Quotation marks are also used to enclose titles of short works and always appear in pairs. When and how should quotation marks be used? Quotation marks should be used to enclose the following: Direct quotations from textual, audio, and video sourcesDickens informed his...

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