About

Citation

  1. Attribution
  2. Citation Styles
    1. APA Style (6th Edition)
      1. Formatting the Title Page (APA)
      2. References Page Template (APA)
      1. Formatting the Abstract Page (APA)
      2. Formatting the First Main Body Page (APA)
      3. Formatting Headings and Subheadings (APA)
      4. Using Footnotes (APA)
      5. Citing Paraphrases and Summaries (APA)
      6. Omitting Words from a Direct Quotation (APA)
      7. Short Quotations (APA)
      8. Emphasizing Words in a Direct Quotation (APA)
      9. Using Brackets in a Direct Quotation (APA)
      10. Formatting In-text Citations (APA)
      11. Formatting the References Page (APA)
      12. Abstract Template (APA)
      13. Order of Major Sections (APA)
      14. Title Page Template (APA)
    2. CSE
    3. IEEE
    4. MLA Style and Formatting Guide (8th Edition)
      1. Shorten the Title of this Source in the In-text Citation
      2. Formatting In-text Citations (MLA)
      3. MLA Checklist
      4. MLA Template
      5. Quoting in MLA
    5. The Chicago Manual of Style
  3. Citation Tools

Collaboration

  1. Co-authorship
  2. Conflict Resolution
  3. Critique
    1. Consider Feedback
    2. Navigate Feedback
    3. Provide Feedback in Group Situations
    4. Provide Feedback to Others
    5. Why Meet with a Writing Tutor?
  4. Leadership
  5. Peer Review
    1. In-class Peer Review
    2. Articles
      1. Online Forums: Responding Thoughtfully
  6. Teamwork
  7. Tools for Project Management

Communication

Composing

Courses

Design

Accessibility

Design Elements, Design Variables

Design Principles

Design Tools

Universal Design

Usability

Editing

  1. Edit for Awk (Awkward)
  2. Edit for Brevity
  3. Edit for Clarity
  4. Edit for Diction
  5. Edit for Flow, Coherence, Unity
  6. Edit for Grammar
    1. Edit for Parallel Structure
    2. Edit for Pronoun Agreement
    3. Edit for Subject-Verb Agreement
    4. Edit for Unclear Modifiers
  7. Edit for Organization
    1. Edit Paragraphs
  8. Edit for Mechanics
    1. Edit for Comma Splice
    2. Edit Primer Sentences
    3. Edit for Run-on Sentences
    4. Edit for Semicolons
    5. Edit for Sentence Fragments
    6. Edit for Sentence Structure
  9. Edit for Point of View
  10. Edit for Simplicity
  11. Proofreading
    1. Read Your Paper Aloud to Check Cohesiveness 

Evidence

  1. Paraphrasing
    1. Mix Quoting with Paraphrasing
  2. Quoting
    1. Block Quotations
    2. Inserting or Altering Words in a Direct Quote
    3. Omitting Words from a Direct Quotation
  3. Guide to Reasoning with Evidence
    1. Connecting Evidence to Your Claims
    2. Distinguish Your Ideas from Your Sources
    3. How Can You Determine Whether to Quote, Paraphrase, or Summarize?
    4. Relate Sources to Thesis/Research Question
  4. Summarizing
  5. Types of Evidence
    1. Anecdote
    2. Character Evidence
    3. Demonstrative Evidence
    4. Digital Evidence
    5. Hypothetical Example
    6. Speculative Example
  6. Articles
    1. Integrate Evidence Appropriately
    2. Synthesizing Your Research Findings
    3. Synthesis Notes: Working With Sources To Create a First Draft

Genre

  1. Argument
    1. Backing
    2. Counterargument
    3. Claim
    4. Grounds
    5. Generalization, Overgeneralization
    6. Qualifier
    7. Warrant
  2. Charts, Figures, Graphs, & Tables
    1. Gantt Charts
  3. Cluster Diagrams & Spider Maps
  4. Cover Letter, Letter of Transmittal
  5. Employment Documents
    1. Taking Control: Managing Your Online Identity for the Job Search
  6. Executive Summary
  7. Formal Reports
  8. Hierarchical maps
  9. Icons, Ideograms, Pictographs
  10. Illustrations
  11. Infographics
    1. Creating “Viral” Impressions: Composing Infographics for the Classroom and Work Space
  12. Information Visualization, Data Visualization
  13. Memos
  14. News Story (Journalism)
  15. Photography
    1. Photographer’s Guide to Selecting Photos for Texts
  16. Playwriting
    1. Overview of Playwriting
    2. Power in the “Black Stuff”
  17. Presentations
    1. PowerPoint Presentation: Developing an Effective Design
  18. Proposal Writing Basics
  19. Research Protocol
  20. Short Story
    1. Setting in Short Stories
  21. Timeline & Flowchart Maps
  22. Title
    1. The Mysterious Incident of the Missing Title: Why Did Titular Concern Vanish from Composition Studies?
  23. Scientific Proposals
  24. Text-to-Text Remediation

Grammar

  1. Mechanics
    1. Punctuation
      1. Apostrophes
      2. Capitalization
      3. Colons
      4. Commas
        1. Phrases, Essential and Non-Essential Phrases
      5. Dashes
      6. Ellipses
      7. End Punctuation
      8. Hyphens
      9. Italics
      10. Parentheses
      11. Periods, Question Marks, Exclamation Points (End-Punctuation)
      12. Quotation Marks
      13. Semicolons
    2. Spelling
  2. Modifiers, Modification
  3. Parallelism, Parallel Structure, Parallel Construction
  4. Sentences
    1. Parts of a Sentence
      1. Independent Clauses, Dependent Clauses & Phrases
      2. Subjects, Verbs, & Objects
    2. Sentence Errors
      1. Comma Splice
      2. Run-on Sentences
      3. Sentence Fragment
      4. Subject-Verb Agreement
    3. Sentence Patterns
    4. Sentence Structure
      1. Coordination & Subordination
    5. Sentence Types
  5. The 9 Parts of Speech
    1. Articles
    2. Adjectives
    3. Adverbs
    4. Conjunctions
    5. Interjections
    6. Nouns
    7. Prepositions
    8. Pronouns
    9. Verbs

Help

Information Literacy

  1. Archive
  2. Canon
  3. Communication
  4. Information Architecture
  5. Information, Data
  6. Information Design
  7. Information Literacy Perspectives & Practices
    1. Authority is Constructed & Contextual
    2. Information Creation as a Process
    3. Information Has Value
      1. Guide to Using Online Images
      2. Intellectual Property
      3. What is Plagiarism?
      4. What is Academic Dishonesty?
      5. Articles
        1. Copyright and Writing
    1. Research as Inquiry
      1. Divide and Conquer: Rethinking Your Approach to Research
    2. Scholarship as a Conversation
      1. Articles
        1. Conversation between Sources
        2. Sticking Your Nose In: Positioning Yourself in Academic Writing
        3. Understanding How Conversations Change Over Time
    3. Searching as Strategic Exploration
      1. Annotated List of Open Access Resources
      2. Finding and Examining the Sources in Your Sources
      3. Preliminary Research
      4. Search Dictionaries and Encyclopedias
      5. Seek Help from Librarians
      6. Smart Searching
      7. Best Search Tools for Images
      8. Understanding Library Resources
      9. Understanding URLs
        1. Understanding URLS (Exercise Answers)
      10. Using Databases: Periodical Indexes and Abstracts
  8. Literacy
    1. Critical Literacy
      1. Annotating the Margins
      2. Distinguishing between Main Points and Sub-claims
      3. The CRAAP Test (Currency, Relevance, Authority, Accuracy, Purpose)
        1. Accuracy
        2. Authority
          1. Avoid the Use of Unsupported Opinions as Evidence
          2. Consider How Are Your Sources Using Sources?
          3. Evaluate if the Information is News or Opinion
          4. Provide Background Information About the Researcher’s Method
        3. Currency
        1. Purpose
        2. Relevance
    2. Digital Literacy
      1. Digital Footprints: Public Writing and Social Identities
      2. Social Media Mythbusters
    3. Quantitative Literacy
    4. Visual Literacy
      1. Animation
      2. Breaking Down an Image

Invention

  1. Felt Sense
  2. Freewriting
  3. Heuristics
    1. Burke’s Pentad
    2. Document Planner
    3. Journalistic Questions
    4. The Business Model Canvas
    5. Argument Template (Toulmin)
  4. Inner Speech
  5. Journaling (Writer’s Journal)
  6. Preliminary Research
  7. Prewriting
    1. Commonplaces (Topoi)
    2. Dictating
    3. Group Brainstorming & Online Conversations
  8. Visual Brainstorming
  9. Articles
    1. Snort, Snuffle, Write

Mindset

  1. Growth Mindset
    1. Adopt Effective Writing Habits
    2. Faith in the Writing Process
    3. Play the Believing Game
    4. Tips for Realizing Your Creative Potential
    5. Why Write?
  2. Intellectual Openness
    1. Demystify Writing Misconceptions
  3. Self-Regulation & Metacognition
    1. Establish a Comfortable Place to Write
    2. Overcome Discouragement
    3. Planning Professional and Technical Documents
    4. Reflect on Your Writing Processes
    5. Scheduling Writing
  4. Professionalism & Work Ethic
    1. Why Should I Keep a Writer’s Log?
  5. Resilience

Organization

  1. Global Perspective
  2. Local Perspective
  3. Organizational Schema
    1. Announcements, Signposting, Organizational Thesis
    2. Causal Order
    3. Chronological Order
    4. Deductive Order, Deductive Reasoning, Deductive Writing
    5. Given-to-New Order
    6. Inductive Order, Inductive Reasoning, Inductive Writing
    7. Spatial Order
      1. Conducting a Spatial Analysis Through the Lens of Universal Design
  4. Paragraphs
    1. Flow, Transitions, Coherence @ Paragraph Level
    2. Paragraph Transitions
    3. Relate Paragraphs Logically to the Previous Paragraph(s)
    4. Sentence Order within Paragraphs
    5. Topic Sentences & Paragraph Development
    6. Unity @ Paragraph Level
  5. Transitional Language, Metalanguage, Seques

Research

  1. Applied Research, Basic Research
  2. Research Ethics
    1. Human Subjects Research
    2. Informed Consent
    3. IRB (Institutional Review Board)
  3. Research Methodology
  4. Research Methods
    1. Empirical Research Methods
      1. Qualitative Research Methods
        1. Case Study
        2. Ethnography
        3. Participant Observation
      2. Quantitative Research Methods
        1. Corpus Linguistics Analysis, A Bird’s Eye View of Writing
        2. Survey Research
      3. Mixed Methods
        1. Content Analysis
        2. Customer Discovery Interviews
          1. Problem Space
          2. Problem Scenarios
        3. Venture Design
      4. Usability & User Experience Research
    2. Informal Research Methods
    3. Textual Research Methods
      1. Content Analysis
      2. Hermeneutics
      3. Historiography
      4. Linguistic Analysis
      5. Literary Criticism
      6. Rhetorical Analysis
        1. A Guide to Textual Analysis
        2. Rhetorical Analysis in the Real World: A Useful Thinking Tool
        3. Rhetorical Analysis of Film
        4. Rhetorical Analysis of Images
      7. Textuality, Intertextuality

Revision

Rhetoric

  1. Rhetorical Reasoning
    1. Rhetorical Appeals
      1. Articles
        1. Beware of “Oh, that makes sense”: Ethos in Context
        2. Diplomacy, Tone, and Emphasis in Business Writing
        3. Ethos
          1. Fallacious Ethos
        4. Intrinsic Authority
        5. Logos
          1. Fallacious Logos
        6. Netiquette (Digital Ethics)
        7. Pathos
          1. Fallacious Pathos
        8. Rhetorical Appeals: A Checklist for Writers
        9. Rhetorical Appeals: An Overview
        10. Using Pathos in Persuasive Writing
    2. Rhetorical Devices
    3. Rhetorical Modes
      1. Causes & Effects
      2. Classification
      3. Compare & Contrast
      4. Definition
      5. Description
      6. Exemplification
      7. Exposition
      8. Narration
        1. Article
          1. Employing Narrative in an Essay
  2. Rhetorical Situation
    1. Audience
      1. Discourse Communities, Communities of Practice
      2. Methodological Communities
      3. Articles
        1. Audience Analysis: Primary, Secondary, and Hidden Audiences
        2. Classification
        3. Conducting a Spatial Analysis through the Lens of Universal Design
        4. Discourse Community, Community of Practice
        5. Digital Footprints: Public Writing and Social Identities
        6. Researching Your Audience
        7. Rhetorical Analysis in the Real World: A Useful Thinking Tool
        8. Think Rhetorically
        9. What to Think about When Writing for a Particular Audience
        10. You-Centered Business Style
    2. Medium, Media
      1. Team Work Space
    3. Occasion, Exigency & Kairos
      1. Problem Space, Solution Space
    4. Purpose
      1. Thesis
        1. When is a Thesis Considered Weak?
      2. Research Question
    5. Subject, Topic
    6. Writer, Speaker, Knowledge Worker . . .
      1. Perspective
  3. Rhetorical Stance
    1. Persona
    2. Point of View
      1. First-Person Point of View
      2. Second-Person Point of View
      3. Third Person Point of View
      4. Articles
        1. A Synthesis of Professor Perspectives on Using First and Third Person in Academic Writing
        2. Exercise: “We” and “You” in Academic Writing
        3. First-Person Point of View
        4. General Guidelines for Using the First Person
        5. Second-Person Point of View
        6. The First Person
        7. Third Person Point of View
        8. Understanding Point-of-View: Wizard Activity
        9. Using First Person in an Academic Essay: When is It Okay?
    3. Tone
      1. Articles
        1. Diplomacy, Tone, and Emphasis in Business Writing
    4. Voice
      1. Active vs Passive Voice
        1. When the Active Voice is Preferable to the Passive Voice
      2. Articles
        1. Active Voice

Style

  1. Code Switching
  2. Diction
    1. Abstract Language
    2. Archaism
    3. Bias-Free Language
    4. Cliché
    5. Concrete, Sensory Language
    6. Contractions
    7. Figurative Language
      1. Idiom
      2. Metaphor
      3. Personification
      4. Simile
    8. Homonyms
    9. Inclusive Language, Bias-free Language
    10. Jargon
    11. Vague Language
    12. Word Form
    13. Wrong Word
  3. The Elements of Style
    1. Brevity
      1. Articles
        1. Writing Concisely and Avoiding Redundancy
    2. Clarity
    3. Flow
      1. Avoid Unnecessary Shifts in Point of View
      2. Avoid Unnecessary Shifts in Verb Tense
      3. Choppy Writing
      4. Creating Flow via Repetition
      5. Read Your Paper Aloud to Check Cohesiveness
    4. Simplicity
  4. Register
  5. Styles of Writing
    1. Academic Prose Style
    2. Reader-Based Style
      1. Concrete & Sensory Language
      2. You-Centered Business Style
      3. What to Think about When Writing for a Particular Audience
    3. Substantive Prose Style
    4. Professional Writing Prose Style
    5. Writer-Based Prose Style

Writing Studies

  1. Assessment, Grading, and Response to Writing
    1. So Your Instructor is Using Contract Grading…
  2. Communication Studies
  3. Composition Studies
  4. Epistemology
    1. Anecdotal Knowledge
    2. Declarative Knowledge
    3. Dialectic
    4. Empiricism
    5. Knowledge
    6. Knowledge Claim
    7. Personal Knowledge
    8. Positivism
    9. Postmodernism
    10. Postpositivism
    11. Procedural Knowledge
    12. Rhetorical Knowledge
    13. Tacit Knowledge
  5. Professional and Technical Communication
    1. What is Workplace Writing or the Discipline of Professional and Technical Communication?
    2. An Overview of Professional and Technical Communication
    3. Cognitive, Intrapersonal, and Interpersonal Competencies
  6. Psychology & Writing Studies
  7. Rhetoric & Technology
    1. Why Study Rhetoric? or, What Freestyle Rap Teaches Us about Writing
    2. Research on Mindset & Intrapersonal Competencies
  8. Writers @ Work
    1. An Interview with Trent Hergenrader
    1. Interviews with Writers: Maureen Seaton
    2. An Interview with Stephanie Vanderslice