Academic disciplines, organizations, and professions (see, e.g., list below) have
- policies for conducting research, such as prohibitions against plagiarism, misrepresentation of data, or fabrication of data
- policies for collaboration, authorship, peer review
- policies for protecting human subjects or animals involved in studies
- policies to account for, avoid, or ameliorate conflicts of interest
- policies for illustrating the value of funded research from governments, foundations, think tanks, and other organizations.