Research Ethics


Academic disciplines, organizations, and professions (see, e.g., list below) have

  • policies for conducting research, such as prohibitions against plagiarism, misrepresentation of data, or fabrication of data
  • policies for collaboration, authorship, peer review
  • policies for protecting human subjects or animals involved in studies
  • policies to account for, avoid, or ameliorate conflicts of interest
  • policies for illustrating the value of funded research from governments, foundations, think tanks, and other organizations.

See Also
The CRAAP Test (Currency, Relevance, Authority, Accuracy, Purpose)

National Institutes of Health (NIH)
National Science Foundation (NSF)
Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
US Department of Agriculture (USDA)
Singapore Statement on Research Integrity
American Chemical Society, The Chemist Professional’s Code of Conduct
Code of Ethics (American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science)
American Psychological Association, Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct
Statement on Professional Ethics (American Association of University Professors)
Nuremberg Code
World Medical Association’s Declaration of Helsinki
International ethical guidelines for biomedical research involving human subjects
International ethical guidelines for epidemiological studies
World Medical Association: Declaration of Helsinki
European Group on Ethics
Directive 2001/20/ec of the European Parliament and of the Council
Council of Europe (Oviedo Convention – Protocol on biomedical research)
Nuffield Council: The ethics of research related to healthcare in developing countries