Collaboration

Collaboration is a highly prized workforce competency. Develop your collaborative competencies so you can work productively with others to create effective texts, products and services.

Collaborations are often structured around roles, specializations, and areas of expertise. "Fort Belvoir Community Hospital astounds with groundbreaking technology and devotion to patient care" by Army Medicine is licensed under CC BY 2.0.

Collaboration Definition

Collaboration refers to the process of learning from and working with others to achieve shared goals, such as coauthoring texts and developing new inventions, applications, processes. As humans, we create new knowledge by engaging in dialog (e.g., scholarly conversations) and by co-authoring, peer reviewing and critiquing texts. 

Collaboration is a creative process, a dominant activity during composing. By working with one another in teams, we can bounce ideas off one another, engage in critique, if not radical transparency. Teams permits groups to gather around skill sets, allowing everyone to bring their best game to game day.

That said, collaboration is not necessarily a walk in the park. People working in teams can have competing aims, interpretations, and levels of interest and self regulation. In other words, conflict happens.

Synonyms

Collaboration competencies may also be called Interpersonal Competencies. These competencies, as demonstrated by the review of research below, are highly prized by employers.

Key Concepts: Archive, Canon, Openness; Team Charter


Why is Collaboration Important?

To be literate in a knowledge economy, you need to learn how to engage in productive co-authorships, use collaboration tools, and productively respond to conflict and critique. Collaboration is deeply interwoven into our identifies and communities as humans. We learn by working with and imitating others.

Scholars collaborating at an academic conference. Photo Credit: Moxley

In general, people are social: they are healthier, more productive, and more creative when given opportunities to work collaboratively. Well—at least that’s true for a large part of the population: the extroverts. Introverts, in contrast, may prefer working alone. Some people find it intrusive and counterproductive to work in groups. But even introverts cannot escape moments of collaboration.

Collaboration is a highly prized workforce competency. In the U.S., the National Research Council, the National Science Foundation, and the Partnership for 21st Century Skills have identified collaboration and teamwork as a core workforce competency. NACE, the National Association of Colleges and Employers, has consistently found in its annual survey of employers’ perceptions of the proficiency of college graduates that collaboration/teamwork is ranked as the second or third most important workforce competency. In its Job Outlook 2022, collaboration/teamwork ranked as the third most important attribute employers look for in candidates (after critical thinking and communication competencies).  When looking at a candidate’s resume, 76.3% of the respondents said they look for evidence of a candidate’s ability to work in a team. While 97.7% of employers ranked Collaboration/Teamwork as a requisite workforce competency, only 77.5% of the employers believe current college graduates lack proficiency as collaborators.

In the U.S., educational systems privilege individual work over collaborative work. As a result, some students may struggle with collaborative assignments. Workloads can be uneven. Students are not always pleased to be tasked with group projects or peer review. Other team members may not have the requisite literacy and collaborative competencies. Researchers have traced student resistance to collaborative work to “environmental forces (family history, social class, and cultural identity) and students’ previous negative experiences with CL [collaborative Learning] in the classroom” (see Stover and Holland 2018).

Over the years, a great deal of theoretical work and empirical research has been conducted concerning collaboration in the workplace and academe. Cannon-Bowers et al’s (1995) review of research posits eight core skills related to collaboration:

  1. adaptability
  2. shared understanding of the situation
  3. performance monitoring and feedback
  4. leadership
  5. interpersonal relations
  6. coordination
  7. communication 
  8. decision making.

In 2017, Maria Elena Oliveri and her fellow research scientists at Education Testing Service published A Literature Review on Collaborative Problem Solving for Workforce Readiness, an exhaustive review of research on collaboration, building on the work of the National Research Council and Cannon-Bowers et al. Based on their review of literature, Oliveri and her colleagues proposed four core competencies related to collaborative problem solving:

  1. Teamwork – Team Cohesion, Team Empowerment, Team Learning, Self Management/Self Leadership, Adaptability/Open Mindedness
  2. CommunicationActive Listening, Exchanging Information
  3. Leadership – Organizing Activities & Resources, Performance Monitoring, Reorganizing When Faced with Obstacles, Resolving Conflict, Transformational Leadership
  4. Problem Solving – Identifying Problems, Brainstorming, Planning, Interpreting & Analyzing, Evaluating & Implementing

Language Use as a Collaborative Act

Language use is invariably collaborative. Language is a social construct—a consequence of cultures and people working together to understand experience and collaborate to make the world a better place. Language precedes the individual. According to Vygotsky and other social constructivists, thought is theorized to be prelinguistic: as children we learn to pair our thoughts with language. Over time, as we are exposed to language, we develop inner speech, an idiosyncratic form of language that is saturated with personal meaning and associations. Inner speech is what we hear when we think, what we mumbled to ourselves when facing obstacles and difficult problems.

Collaboration also refers to instances of Human & AI (Artificial Intelligence) collaborations. Increasingly, people collaborate with machines to complete tasks. For instance, doctors work with AI (artificial intelligence) to diagnose diseases; architects to design safe buildings; engineers to build machines, and consumers to receive service help. Collaborations between humans and machines are anticipated to soon become more commonplace.

Collaboration & Intersubjectivity

Effective communication and interpretation relies on collaboration between the author and the audience. When we enter a rhetorical situation, either as rhetors and audiences, we are able to communicate when we share some commonplace knowledge, such as knowledge of a language, dialect, genre, motif, and story (see Writer’s Guide).

Communication theorists use a variety of terms to refer to this shared interpretive space between the author and the audience:

The term intersubjective refers to what writers and readers or speakers and listeners share in common. At a minimum, when we communicate, we rely on a common vocabulary, images, stories, histories, senses, jargon, rituals, histories, instincts, desires, personalities, and attitudes. In face-to-face situations, when collaborating with others whom we interact with a lot, a shrug of shoulders, a rolling of eyes, or even a sarcastic comment can convey volumes of information. Conversely, when communicating with non-like-minded people, we must work harder to establish a shared context.

Additionally, this social space is called intersubjective to highlight the subjective nature of interpretative and communicative efforts. As humans, our subject positions, our histories and conceptual lenses shape what we see and how we interpret what we see. For instance, our political ideology may inform whether or not we believe President Trump committed bribery or high crimes and misdemeanors during his term in office.

 

Photo Credit: “students presentations (20)” by cambodia4kidsorg is licensed under CC BY 2.0.

 

Works Cited

Cannon-Bowers et al. (1995). Cannon-Bowers, J. A., & Salas, E. (1997). A framework for developing team performance measures in training. In M. T. Brannick, E. Salas, & C. Prince (Eds.), Team performance assessment and measurement: Theory, methods, and applications (pp. 45–62). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Hutchins, E. (1995). Cognition in the wild. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Moxley, J. & Eubanks, D. (2016). On keeping score: Instructors’ vs. students’ rubric ratings of 46,689 essays. WPA: Writing Program Administration 53-78.

NACE 2021. Job Outlook 2022. Bethlehem, PA: U.S. Government Printing Office.

NACE 2016. Job Outlook 2016. National Association of Colleges and Employers. Bethlehem, PA: U.S. Government Printing Office.

NACE 2016. Job Outlook 2017. National Association of Colleges and Employers. Bethlehem, PA: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Oliveri, M., Lawless, R., & Molloy, H. (2017). A Literature Review on Collaborative Problem Solving for Workforce Readiness. GRE Board Research Report Series and ETS Research Report Series, 1-27. Doi:10.1002/ets12133

Vygotsky, Lev (1978). Mind in Society. London: Harvard University Press.

Wilson, James H. and Paul R. Daugherty (July-August 2018). Collaborative Intelligence: Humans and AI Are Joining Forces. Harvard Business Review.

Stover, S., & Holand, C. (2018). Student Resistance to Collaborative Learning. International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (12: 2).