Usability – How to Research & Improve Usability

Usability refers to the ease with which audiences can accurately interpret your message, understand your purpose, and navigate your information architecture. Whether you're writing an essay, a research paper, or a blog post, understanding the principles of usability can help you improve the usability of your work or the work of others.

What is Usability?

Usability refers to

  1. how well an audience can interact with a user interface, whether it’s a text, website, application, or any digital platform. It’s focused on making interfaces and content easy to understand, navigate, and interact with for users.
  2. the degree to which a reader can navigate, use, and understand your text. You can improve the usability by ensuring your language is concise, well organized, scannable, unified, inclusive, and as simple and visual as possible.

Related Concepts: Audience Awareness; Authority (in Writing): Rhetorical Analysis; Rhetorical Reasoning

How to Analyze the Usability of Your Works

Researchers utilize various methods to analyze the usability of texts. These methods often involve gathering data about how real users interact with the text and using that data to make the work more user-friendly, including:

  1. Usability Testing:
    • In this method, researchers observe as users interact with the text. This could be done in person or remotely, and typically involves asking the user to perform specific tasks, such as finding a particular piece of information or understanding a specific concept. The researcher then notes where the user has difficulty and uses this information to improve the text.
  2. Expert Evaluation:
    • Also known as heuristic evaluation, this method involves having a usability expert evaluate the text. The expert will use a set of usability principles, known as heuristics, to identify potential issues.
  3. User Surveys:
    • These are questionnaires that ask users about their experiences with the text. They can provide valuable feedback on what users found helpful or confusing, and can be used to inform revisions.
  4. A/B Testing:
    • In this method, two versions of a text (version A and version B) are tested with different user groups. Researchers then compare the results to determine which version was more usable.
  5. Eye-Tracking Studies:
    • These studies involve tracking where users look as they read the text. This can provide insights into what parts of the text attract attention, how readers navigate the text, and where they may be getting confused.


What are the elements of discourse that affect usability?

Several elements of discourse can affect the readability of a text, including:

  • Vocabulary
    • The use of complex, specialized, or jargon-heavy vocabulary can impede readability. It’s important to match the language complexity with the intended audience’s knowledge and comprehension level.
  • Sentence Structure
    • Long, complex sentences can be challenging to follow and understand, affecting readability. Short, concise sentences are generally more readable.
  • Simplicity
    • Simplicity is a judgment made by people (e.g., readers & users) about whether a text or design of a product or app is as simple as possible given the complexity of the topic and rhetorical situation.  Simplicity is a highly prized attribute of communication
  • Paragraph Structure
    • Large blocks of text can be daunting and hard to read. Breaking the text into smaller, digestible paragraphs can enhance readability.
  • Scannability
    • Good page design can help you hook your readers’ curiosity and improve readability. Good page design is an essential element of authority in writing.
  • Organization and Flow
    • The logical flow of ideas and the coherence of the text significantly impact readability. Information should be organized in a clear and logical manner, with a smooth flow from one idea to the next.
  • Typography and Layout
    • Aspects like font size, line spacing, and text alignment can also impact readability. A clean, uncluttered layout with clear typography can significantly improve a text’s readability.
  • Unity

Tools to Check the Readability of Your Works

  1. Readable:
    • This website provides an overall readability score and also evaluates the text using multiple readability formulas, including the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level and the Gunning Fog Index.
  2. WebFX Readability Test Tool:
    • This tool provides a detailed report based on various readability formulas. You can either directly input the text or paste a URL.
    • This online tool offers a simple interface where you can paste your text and get an immediate readability analysis.

What ways do editors and teachers use to measure the readability of a text or design?

There are several methods that editors and teachers might use to measure the readability of a text or design:

  • Readability Formulas
    • These are mathematical formulas, like the Flesch-Kincaid Readability Test or the Gunning Fog Index, which use factors such as word length and sentence length to estimate the text’s readability level.
  • User Testing
    • This involves getting actual users to read the text and provide feedback on its readability. This could be done through surveys, interviews, or observational studies.
  • Expert Review
    • An expert, such as an editor or a teacher, might review the text and use their expertise to evaluate its readability.
  • Automated Tools
    • There are several online tools and software that can automatically assess the readability of a text, based on various factors like vocabulary, grammar, sentence structure, etc.

What is the difference between usability and universal design?

While both usability and universal design have a common goal of creating better user experiences, Universal Design encompasses a broader scope: it advocates for designing products and environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design). Also, universal design extends beyond digital interfaces to include physical spaces.

Read More: