Two Women foregrounded @ Women's March 2018, CC BY-SA 2.0 by Mobilus

Argument – Argumentation

What is Argument? Argumentation? Argument is an iterative process that informs humankind’s search for meaning. Argument vs Persuasion The terms argument and persuasion may be used synonymously, yet subject matter experts in Writing Studies typically draw distinctions: Related Concepts: Evidence; Persuasion; Rhetorical Analysis; Rhetorical Reasoning 3 Types of Argument Arguments come in all shapes and ...

Toulmin Model Example by Chiswick Chap, CC BY-SA 3.0

Toulmin Argument

Stephen Toulmin’s (1958) model of argument conceptualizes argument as a series of six rhetorical moves: Related Concepts Evidence; Persuasion; Rhetorical Analysis; Rhetorical Reasoning FAQs Why Does Toulmin Argument Matter? Toulmin’s model of argumentation is particularly valuable for college students because it provides a structured framework for analyzing and constructing arguments, skills that are essential across ...

statue of Aristotle by a building in Freiburg, Germany - photo “Aristotle” by maha-online is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0

Aristotelian Argument

Aristotelian Argument is a deductive approach to argumentation that presents a thesis, an argument up front — somewhere in the introduction — and then endeavors to prove that point via deductive reasoning and exemplification. Scholarly conversations regarding this style of argument can be traced to the 4th century BEC, including, especially Aristotle’s Rhetoric as well ...

Overgeneralization

What is Overgeneralization? Overgeneralization refers to sweeping generalizations based on an opinions, anecdotes, assumptions, or prejudices. Here are some examples of overgeneralization: Each of these sentences presents propositions as facts. These sort of murky, underdeveloped thoughts are not grounded in authoritative evidence. Thus, this is a formal logic error, a logical fallacy. Synonyms Overgeneralization may ...

Warrant

Warrants are assumptions that link claims to grounds. Warrants can be scientific laws, principles of historical interpretation, a law statute or psychological generalization about human behavior. Warrants may be implied or explicitly stated to support an argument.

Grounds

Grounds are evidence Grounds is a term that Stephen T

Claim

What is a Claim? Claims are assertions, arguments, and conclusions about something. For instance, claims can be about definitions, causes and effects, claims of fact, or policies. A claim may me a macro-claim—i.e., a major claim that informs an entire text. Or a claim may be a micro-claim—a subclaim attached to a larger claim. Logical ...

Baseball payers argue with one another as well as the ref.

Counterarguments – Rebuttal – Refutation

Counterargument Definition Counterargument refers to an argument given in response to another argument that takes an alternative approach to the issue at hand. Synonyms Counterargument may also be known as rebuttal or refutation. Related Concepts Audience Awareness; Authority (in Speech and Writing); Critical Literacy; Ethos; Openness; Researching Your Audience Guide to Counterarguments in Writing Studies ...

Golden Gate Bridge under clear skies, supported by exaggerated beams, with cars crossing over.

Backing

Backing is a key part of building a strong argument, as defined by Stephen Toulmin in his model of argumentation. It’s the additional evidence or reasoning that supports the warrant, which is the logical link connecting your evidence to your main point or claim. In simpler terms, if your claim is what you’re trying to ...

Knowledge Claim

Knowledge Claims are the topics, the scholarly conversations, that subject-matter-experts have with one another as they engage in research or discuss the knowledge claims of others. Knowledge claims are grounded in dialectic – the ongoing conversation of humankind. Knowledge claims may be grounded in theory, dialog, and hermeneutics. As humans learn more about the universe ...