What is Rhetorical Theory?
Rooted in the ancient tradition of oratory and persuasion, rhetorical theory is concerned with the study of effective communication — how messages are constructed, delivered, and received.
Rhetorical Theory may refer to
- the study of persuasion, especially of the ways writers or speak appeal to
- the study of the rhetorical situation, especially
- Exigence — the driving force behind the call to write or speak. It’s the situation that prompts the need for communication, urging the speaker or writer to use discourse to respond to a particular matter
- Audience — the specific individuals or groups (aka discourse communities) to whom the discourse is directed
- Constraints — the effects of rhetorical affordances and constraints on communication, composing and style
- the study of signs — of written, spoken, and visual language
- the use of theory as an interpretive lens and heuristic.
Why Does Rhetorical Theory Matter?
Rhetorical Theory has been a major subject of study and conversation among writers and speakers since the 5th century BCE, when sophists taught persuasive techniques to young aristocrats who hoped to succeed in legal and political arenas. Rhetorical theories provide insights into ways writers and speakers can craft their messages so they are persuasive.
What Do Rhetoricians Study?
Rhetorical theorists (aka rhetoricians) study a range of subjects related to interpretation and communication. For instance, rhetoricians may study how language practices shape identity, culture, or cognition. They may study
- composing, interpretation, and communication
- crisis communication
- digital rhetoric
- signs and semiotics
- persuasion and argument
- political rhetoric
- visual rhetoric.
How Does Rhetorical Theory Inform Contemporary Writing Instruction?
Rhetorical theory has had a profound impact on writing instruction in the U.S. Throughout middle school, high school, and college, aspiring writers are trained to engaged in rhetorical analysis in order to develop a voice, tone, and persona that is appropriate for of a particular rhetorical situation.
The CWPA (Council of Writing Program Administrators) defines rhetorical knowledge as a foundational competency in college-level writing:
“The assertion that writing is “rhetorical” means that writing is always shaped by a combination of the purposes and expectations of writers and readers and the uses that writing serves in specific contexts. To be rhetorically sensitive, good writers must be flexible. They should be able to pursue their purposes by consciously adapting their writing both to the contexts in which it will be read and to the expectations, knowledge, experiences, values, and beliefs of their readers. They also must understand how to take advantage of the opportunities with which they are presented and to address the constraints they encounter as they write. In practice, this means that writers learn to identify what is possible and not possible in diverse writing situations. Writing an email to a friend holds different possibilities for language and form than does writing a lab report for submission to an instructor in a biology class. Instructors emphasize the rhetorical nature of writing by providing writers opportunities to study the expectations, values, and norms associated with writing in specific contexts. This principle is fundamental to the study of writing and writing instruction. It informs all other principles in this document” (Conference 2015).