Invention

  • Avoid bad habits: worrying, procrastinating, or expecting a perfect first-draft.
  • Realize your potential to innovate, to be creative, and to disrupt the status quo by engaging in the following invention strategies: drafting, invention heuristics, and preliminary research.

Invention refers to the act of generating content (e.g., words on a page, musical symbols, mathematical equations, pictures and animations.) Invention is fueled by intellectual openness, a growth mindset, faith in the writing process, believing, resilience, and optimism.


In Writing Studies, Invention is conceptualized as a composing strategy or process. Historically, Invention is one of the 5 canons of rhetoric (Invention, Arrangement, Style, Memory, Delivery.)

Perhaps because they have a fixed mindset and haven’t yet discovered the generative power of language–some people do not perceive themselves to be creative. They reserve the terms creative or innovative for people who write literature, create art work, invent products, or lead scientific breakthroughs. People who develop new theories, products, and ideas certainly deserve to be called “creative” or “innovative,” yet the vast majority of us can be creative, too.

Our insights, ideas, products, and art work may not transform the world; they may not even be perceived by others as creative because to others they may seem familiar or prosaic. However, if we develop ideas, stories, and works of art that are new to us (that we’re not copying), then we are being creative. Our creations may not enrich society at large, yet they may enrich our personal lives, and, perhaps, the lives of those around us. Over time, our “small c” creative projects may lead to a “big c” Creative project–something that truly does transform how people think about the world. A daily pattern of being creative, of working hard to solve problems, may lead, over time, to breakthroughs for ourselves and others.

For writers, invention is where the magic happens. Writers don’t get hooked on writing because of all of the hard work. Instead, writers are inspired by the joy of discovery, the bliss of finding what they want to say as they write.

From Invention to Innovation

One of the best ways to tap into your potential is to figure out what interests you. Collaboration, Genre, Information Literacy, Invention, Revision, Invention Mindset, Organization, Research, Rhetoric, Style and Editing are more engaging processes when the end result is something that matters deeply to you.

“When you feel like you’re not productive, it’s not necessarily because you’re lazy or because you have bad habits, it’s because you’re not working on the right projects and you haven’t found the ones that are intrinsically motivating and meaningful to you.” 

— Adam Grant, https://tim.blog/2019/12/05/adam-grant/

For other circumstances, you know, the other 99% of life, especially when you’re working for other people, there’s still hope. The human mind flourishes when challenged.

The intellectual strategies that comprise writing processes invariably leads to creative thinking. Talking over ideas with friends and experts (Collaboration), seeing how others have crafted texts addressing similar rhetorical situations (Genre), learning about a topic (Information Literacy), managing your writing processes (Mindset), conducting empirical studies (Research), and trying to inform, entertain or persuade someone (Rhetoric)–these intellectual strategies beget creative thinking and deeper learning. Writing, as a mode of thinking and learning:

Collaboration
The people you know, the ways they respond to your ideas, shape your sense of what is possible in life.
Genre
Information Literacy
Writers work with information to generate topics, stories, and research questions to write about (see especially Scholarship as a Conversation). Hence, your relationship to information plays a major role in what is said and what is left unsaid.
Mindset
In 1898, Thomas Edison, the American inventor, is quoted in The Ladies Home Journal as saying “Genius is 1 percent inspiration and 99 percent perspiration.” Although a cliché at this point, Edison’s aphorism remains as true now as it did in the early 1900s.

Perhaps most of all, Invention is shaped by Mindset. The act of Invention is characterized by a spirit of openness, optimism, and play. For many people, invention is the best part of writing. Invention is, after all, where the magic happens–where writers are inspired by the joy of discovery, the bliss of finding what they want to say as they write. That said, it’s also true that some writing tasks don’t require all of your creative bandwidth–like writing a shopping list or a quick Tweet. But the bottom line is that if you don’t have a Growth Mindset, if you can’t quiet the internal editor and Play the Believing game, you won’t be much good at Invention.
Organization
Research
Disciplinary communities (e.g., engineering, nursing, chemistry) have long-standing traditions regarding how to posit and test knowledge claims. Learning new ways to develop knowledge claims empowers writers to join new communities which reinforces our social nature as humans.
Rhetoric
Where’s the bleeding edge? What do experts on a topic currently think are the most important remaining research questions and research methods?

Invention @ Writing Commons

Beyond pursuing your passion and trusting the process, you can enhance your ability to innovate, to be creative, and to disrupt the status quo by engaging in the following invention strategies: drafting, invention heuristics, and preliminary research.

  1. Invention
    1. Drafting
      1. Dictating
      2. Exemplification
      3. Freewrite
    2. Heuristics (Prewriting Exercises)
      1. Burke’s Pentad
      2. Document Planner
      3. Journalistic Questions
      4. Journal About the Assignment
      5. The Common Topoi and Tagmemic Questions
      6. Visualization
        1. Clustering/spider maps
        2. Timeline/flowchart maps
        3. Hierarchical maps
        4. Modeling/theory maps 
  2. Preliminary Research

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  3. Benefits to Using a Writer’s Journal

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  4. Burke’s Pentad

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  5. Clustering: Spider Maps

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  6. Composing Strategies

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  7. Connecting Source Material to Claims

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  8. Data Visualizations

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  9. Double-Entry Response Format

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  10. Executive Summary

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  11. Exercise: Analyzing Evidence

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  12. Exercise: Figurative Language

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  13. Flow: Mix Quotes with Paraphrasing

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  14. Freewrite

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  15. Hierarchical Maps

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  16. How Much of this Quote is Vital to Your Point?

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  17. How to Win Papers and Influence Professors: Creating Positive First Impressions through Effective Titles

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  18. In the Moment: A Write-from-Experience Activity

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  19. Incorporate Evidence into a Research Paper

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  20. Inserting or Altering Words in a Direct Quotation

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  21. Introduce Evidence

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  22. Journal About the Assignment

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  23. Journalistic Questions

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  24. Modeling/Theory Maps

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  25. Omitting Words from a Direct Quotation

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  26. Paraphrase Accurately to Preserve the Source’s Ideas

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  27. Provide Background Information About the Researcher’s Methods

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  28. Provide Support for Claims

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  29. Relate Sources to Thesis/Research Question

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  30. Relevance of a Source in relation to Claims

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  31. Remediation

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  32. Review Assignment Requirements

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  33. Sample Process Questions

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  34. Snort, Snuffle, Write

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  35. Summarize & Paraphrase Sources

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  36. Summary

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  37. Supporting Ideas and Building Arguments

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  38. Synthesis Notes: Working With Sources To Create a First Draft

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  39. Synthesizing Your Research Findings

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  40. Tell Your Readers When You Are Citing, Paraphrasing, or Summarizing

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  41. The Common Topoi and Tagmemic Questions

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  42. Timelines: Flow Chart Maps

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  43. Use Solely Your Own Words to Paraphrase

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  44. Visualizations

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  45. When Is Paraphrasing Preferable to Quoting?

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  46. When is Quoting Preferable to Paraphrasing?

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  47. When to Paraphrase

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  48. When to Quote

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  49. When to Quote

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