Schedule for Professional Writing, Spring 2021

Dear Students,

Welcome to the schedule for Professional Writing, Spring 2021, an undergraduate course on business writing.

The schedule is divided into three major modules:

1. The Business Model Canvas
The first module involves a three-week introduction to the nine core business elements that constitute the BMC (Business Model Canvas).

2. The Customer Discovery Process
For module 2, you’ll engage in an eight-week sprint to develop a commercially viable solution to a real problem for particular customers. This module requires you to get out of the building (a phrase from lean design that essentially means you get out of your head and into the head of your customer).

3. The Prototype & Investor Pitch
The last major module involves pitching your prototype and business thesis to an investor audience.

[ Professional Writing Syllabus, Spring 2021 ]

Module 1,

The Business Model Canvas (BMC)

Welcome. This module introduces you to some of the thought leaders in lean startup, venture design, and design thinking.

You’ll conclude this module in Week 3. Then you’ll pitch your idea as a good opportunity for a startup project. You’ll explain why it’s a good idea for your classmates to join your startup. For the pitch, you are not expected to have a solution to a problem, an answer. Rather, you want to define a problem space. You want to map that problem space so your peers will understand why you think it’s a good startup idea. What’s the problem space? Who is experiencing pain in that space, a problem, an obstacle. What’s the scope of the project? Is it feasible? Will you have access to customers for customer discovery interviews? What’s the commercial market potential?

For this module, you’ll be introduced to several professional writing genres:

  • a discussion post introducing yourself
  • a memo for first-year business students that introduces them to business and entrepreneurial processes, concepts, terms, and research methods
  • a one-minute video pitch written to your peers and instructor in the class that highlights a pitch for a startup
  • an executive summary of your thoughts about a particular problem space and business opportunity.

Week 1, 1/11 to 1/17, The Business Model Canvas (aka BMC)

This week’s readings introduce The BMC (The Business Model Canvas). The BMC is a heuristic tool for creative thinking and analysis.

Initially you’ll be asked to demonstrate your understanding of the nine elements of The BMC (Business Model Canvas):

Customer Segments: Who are the customers? What do they think? See? Feel? Do?

Value Propositions: What’s compelling about the proposition? Why do customers buy, use?

Channels: How are these propositions promoted, sold and delivered? Why? Is it working?

Customer Relationships: How do you interact with the customer through their ‘journey’?

Revenue Streams: How does the business earn revenue from the value propositions?

Key Activities: What uniquely strategic things does the business do to deliver its proposition?

Key Resources: What unique strategic assets must the business have to compete?

Key Partnerships: What can the company not do so it can focus on its Key Activities?

Cost Structure: What are the business’ major cost drivers? How are they linked to revenue?”


The BMC was initially conceptualized by Alex Osterwalder as part of his doctoral research on design research at the University of Lausanne. With his dissertation advisor, Yves Pigneu, Osterwalder published Business Model Generation: A Handbook For Visionaries, Game Changers, And Challengers in 2010. (This, by the way, is a good example of scholarship as a conversation.)

Alex Cowan’s The 20 Minute Business Plan provides a useful introduction to the BMC:

Osterwalder (2012). Osterwalder explaining the Business Model Canvas. You Tube,

Assignments & Due Dates

  1. By Monday, 1/11/20, 5 p.m.,
    • review the course syllabus, skim the schedule, and then skim The Writer’s Guide to Writing Commons
    • upload a 250-word discussion post to Canvas that
      1. briefly introduces yourself.
        1. Share your name and one or two sentences about yourself. What’s your major? Why?
        2. Identify your strengths as a communicator, either via written, multimedia, or spoken channels. What sort of skills can you bring to a startup–quantitative skills? software competencies? project management skills? Bring it on. Succinctly. Note: This introduction is required; it will be used to record first-day attendance. Failure to complete this introduction will result in your removal from the course. Your instructor will be unable to assist you in terms of getting you back into a course you have been dropped from at the University. This intro will be graded on a completed/not completed basis, so . . . relax!
  2. By Friday, 1/15, 11:59pm
    1. To get the lay of the land, engage in a bit of preliminary research:
      1. Watch How to Design, Test and Build Business Models (2012) to hear Alex Osterwalder’s 2012 introduction of the BMC.
      2. Watch Steve Blank’s The BMC
      3. Skim through Sam Altman’s Startup Playbook.
      4. Engage in a bit of textual research to learn about the BMC and evidence-based entrepreneurship. Ground yourself in scholarly conversations related to the BMC, starting with Alex Osterwalder and Strategyzer: Watch Steve Blank’s presentation on the Value Proposition and the Minimum Viable Product – How to Build a Startup. Be sure to check out a few of Steve Blank’s videos and slides that seem interesting to you.
      5. Listen to a podcast related to entrepreneurship and The BMC; see, e.g.,
        1. Ben Thompson: Thriving in a Digital World
        2. Lesson 2 – Value Proposition Canvas and Value Proposition Types (21:11) – Business Model Canvas
    2. Genre: Informative Memo
      Write a two-page memo to first-year undergraduate students who are not business majors. In this exercise, you are the authority. Your purpose is to explain the BMC so that your audience will learn something about it and business practices. Exactly what you say about the BMC is up to you. Here, you do not need to explain the entire BMC canvas (although you can if you wish). You are welcome to have a welcoming overview and introduction to the concept and then dig into to one aspect of the canvas, such as the Value Proposition.

      You can assume that your audience is unaware of the lean startup, design thinking, venture design. You can assume your audience is not familiar with heuristic tools such as the BMC.

      Review Lee Ann Hodges’ article on memos as a genre of discourse. For this memo and future memos you write, use single space.

      Review Technical Writing Prose Style* before posting your final draft of the memo to Canvas. It’s difficult to earn A grades in professional writing without some thought to design, including page design. Hint: An entire page of this page could be dedicated to your version of the BMC

      Note: In business documents, writers are expected to attribute the videos, podcasts, websites, articles, and books that they summarize, paraphrase on quote (see Writing with Sources. Writers across professions, businesses, and academic disciplines follow citation styles. For this assignment, for this particular rhetorical situation, however, you are not required to provide citations. Instead, it is preferable that you hyperlink to the texts that you cite. You only need to provide a reference for a source if you are unable to link to it. Use APA format.

University Holiday: 1/18, Martin Luther King Holiday

Let’s all celebrate Dr. King’s disruptive ability to reimagine social justice, social change, and respect and equality of people.

Week 2, 1/18 to 1/24, The Problem Space

Steve Wozniak wanted a computer. Mark Zuckerberg wanted to engage online with his college friends. Larry and Sergey wanted to find things on the web. All these founders were building things they and their peers wanted, and the fact that they were at the leading edge of change meant that more people would want these things in the future.

Paul Graham, Billionaires Build

During Week 2, you’ll use the Osterwalder’s BMC Template as a heuristic to develop an idea for a startup, an idea that will hopefully inspire your classmates to join you in your pursuit of a particular business problem and solution.

Your primary goal right now is to identify a real problem for a real customer. Hopefully, you can identify a problem space that you find fascinating. You’ll need to do a bit of strategic searching before you find a topic worth your time. You want to choose something that is feasible given the schedule for this course. Because this project is built around customer discovery, you are much better off choosing a topic for which you can access potential customers. Since you are all students, I encourage you to think about students as consumers

Right now you do not need to worry about having a viable solution. Instead your focus should be on the customer. Who are they? Can you characterize unique customer personas? What is the problem they are facing?

For now you don’t need to worry about solutions. You don’t need to worry about product-market fit. It’s enough for now to identify a problem space where the existing solutions leave much to be desired.

Assignments & Due Dates

  1. By Wednesday, 1/20
    1. Review Alex Cowan’s
    2. Genre: Social Media
      Write an informative discussion post directed to other students in the class. Pulling from all the readings and web surfing you’ve done so far, what are the key learnings, the insights you’ve gained into rhetoric, style, composition, and entrepreneurship. Your goal is to be interesting. You don’t have to summarize all of your thoughts. It’s better to focus on one or two examples and go into details. Tell us something we might not know that pertains to the readings. Link to pages you reference. Use visuals, headings, visual language.

      Note: You do not need to purchase an online BMC template. You will receive full credit for this part of the exercise just by handing writing post it notes on a BMC poster board. Later in the semester, once the startups are formed, however, you may want to consider using the 30 day trial at Strategyzer to access their BMC tool.
    3. Genre: Invention Heuristic
      Thought Experiment: Develop a BMC for a particular problem space and share the BMC with your classmates via the discussion board.
      1. Either draw your own BMC or download the BMC from a trusted resource on the web:
        1. The BMC as a google presentation template from Alex Cowan
        2. The BMC in .pdf from Strategyzer.
      2. Write post it notes for the nine BMC elements. Although the post it notes can be hand written, they need to be readable. Alternatively, use memo format and headings for each of the nine BMC elements.
      3. Upload a pic of your BMC to the Class Discussion Board
  2. By Sunday, 1/24
    1. Genre: Narrative
      Write a narrative (aka a story or an executive narrative about your idea for a startup. Use the headings below to frame your story.
      1. The medium is up to you. But the genre is a narrative that tells a story about a potential business proposition. You can write as a memo, infographic, PowerPoint or Google Slides, or video. Place the word count on the top of the executive narrative.
        1. Ethos:
          1. Your first & last name:
          2. Company name:
          3. Why this topic? Why do you believe it’s important to pursue this particular problem space?
        2. Genre:
          1. Is your idea derivative?
        3. Occasion:
          1. What is the Problem Space (aka Problem Definition)? you propose to investigate?
          2. What is the exigency of this problem?
        4. Purpose:
          1. What is your value proposition? How do you propose to generate revenue? Will you provide a product, a service, an app? Are you a mobile solution? software-as-a-service? consumer good? business-to-business? business-to-consumer?
        5. Audience:
          1. Who are you customers? What customer archetypes can you define?
          2. How big is your market? How much could you make?
  3. By Sunday go to the gDoc for Professional Writing, Spring 2021 and provide a link to your executive memo. Please link out to a gDoc version of your memo and set the sharing permissions so other students can make comments on your memo.

Week 3, 1/25 to 1/31, The Pitch!

Okay, after three weeks it’s understandable if your idea feels a bit ineffable, tenuous, naescent—i.e., more of a feeling deep in the body rather than an articulated thought. At this point during composing, you want to privilege believing over doubting. IOWs, don’t beat yourself up if you haven’t hit on a really cool problem space yet. That’s totally understandable. Entrepreneurship, like writing, like anything that requires deep thought, is an iterative process.

Initially, be especially vigilant to push yourself to listen and be expansive and open to ideas. Talk to your friends. Do a bit of online surfing. Consider a variety of problem spaces. Ultimately, you want to find an exciting idea, something you’re passionate about. Don’t glob on to the first idea that occurs to you. Consider a variety of problem spaces. Watch some Ted Talks. Speak with insightful people you know. Engage in a bit of textual research. Read & listen to the idea. Check out the reddit discussion on startup ideas.

If possible, do some informal customer discovery interviews. Talk to potential customers. Practice strategic searching on topics of interest to you. Engage in some informal research. Talk with insightful people about their entrepreneurial ideas. Watch some pitches at You Tube. And avoid the Eyores.

Due Dates

If you have lost enthusiasm for the idea you pitched last week, no worries. You have until the end of this week to pitch your idea for a startup that might last the rest of the semester.

  1. Genre: Video Pitch
    By Wednesday, 1/27, complete the Video Pitch assignment:
    1. continue your preliminary research efforts:
      1. Read The Problem Definition and Part 1: The Idea by Alex Cowan
      2. Engage in strategic searching for incubators such as YCombinator or The Tampa Bay Wave. Look at the companies that have come out of the incubators. Check out Reddit’s forum on startups: r/startups. (Please shoot shoot me an email if you identify if the incubators have upcoming pitch competitions.)
      3. To check out how informal your video can be, check out some Y Combinator application videos; check out this handy tip sheet
    2. Use your phone to record a one-minute video. Upload it to You Tube. Upload the url for your video at YouTube to Canvas. Also make a the link to your video at the gdoc for this course.
  2. Genre: Narrative (Business Pitch)
    By Sunday, 1/31/21, complete and submit your Pitch Narrative
    • A Pitch Narrative is a type of executive summary: the goal of a pitch narrative is to succinctly present a business opportunity.

      Entrepreneurs give business pitches when competing to join business incubators, share efforts with mentors and interested others, and compete for funding.

      For this scenario, this this rhetorical situation, imagine that your pitch will be judged by business leaders who participate in your school’s incubator. Or, consider the pitch guidelines of a neighborhood incubator or national incubator. Place the word count on the top of the pitch narrative.

      Required Content

      Business Thesis: lead your memo with a 140 character or less summary of what your company will do

      Elevator Pitch: provide a 100 word executive summary of your pitch

      The Problem Definition Visualization: provide a visualization of the problem space, stakeholders, causes of the problem, and potential solutions to the problem (see Problem Definition)

      BMC Visualization: Use your cell phone and post it notes to provide a visualization of your BMC. Or, use some other BMC tool to type in templates or draw your business hypotheses. Provide one sentence or verb phrase for the nine business elements.
    • If you have sloppy language, recognize that all is lost: the people you want to work with either won’t understand you or they won’t want to work with you. Well….unless you have a glimmer of an idea that is blue sky. So, pause, take a moment. Before you submit work for this class, review technical and professional writing style. Reread your work to ensure it represents your best work product. Don’t forget to revise and edit.

Module 2, Customer Discovery

Congratulations for reaching Module 2: Customer Discovery and Venture Design!

For this module, you’ll engage in Customer Discovery to identify what to build and how to build it. The Customer Discovery Process presumes entrepreneurs should build not what they believe a customer needs but rather what the customer tells them they need.

You will also be introduced to Venture Design, a version of lean startup that was developed by Alexander Cowan, an entrepreneur and lecturer in the MBA program at UVA Davon.

In Venture Design Process, Cowan visualizes Venture Design as

  1. A Problem Scenario.
    1. A collage of Stakeholders, Audiences. Customers. Personas. People come into a rhetorical situation, they come across a problem space, with a particular perspective. That perspective informs their insights regarding problem scenarios and alternatives.
  2. User Stories & Prototypes. Engage in Customer Discovery to build things users need. Develop MVPS (minimum viable products) and prototypes.
  3. Value Propositions & Assumptions. Define your business theses. Complete your BMC.
  4. Customer Discovery & Experiments
  5. Product & Promotion

Week 4, 2/1 to 2/7, Genre: Employment Documents & Team Charter

This week you’ll read about collaboration, venture design, design thinking, and the genre of Team Charters

This week you have two major assignments:

  1. As an individual, you’ll write in the genre of employment documents
  2. As a member of a fledgling startup, you’ll collaborate with your colleagues to draft the first iteration of your Team Charter.

Note: This week requires agency on your part. Getting going on a good project with a cool startup is the ultimate goal. You need to take action to join a startup or to attract talent to your startup.

Wednesday (choose from 2 options)

Genre: Employment Documents

  1. By Monday, 2/1/21 or by Wednesday, 2/3/21, at the latest, if you want to recruit a team for your startup, upload Advertisements & Job Descriptions to the class discussion board. Place your name and email at the top of your advertisement. Describe the opportunity and risks. Establish your own ethos to lead the project. Describe the specific roles you are advertising, such as CEO, Product Manager, Technical Founder, Researcher, Business Strategist, Designer, Senior Writer, Accountant, Developer.
  2. By Wednesday, 2/3/21 if you want to join someone else’s startup (you may need to apply to multiple startups), you must write a letter of interest and develop a resume in support of your application. Submit both documents in a single upload to the Discussion Forum.


  1. If no one joins your startup idea and you are not interested in the existing startup projects, can you work on your own idea as a sole founder?

    Reply: Yes, solo founders are acceptable. However, solo founders are discouraged. Leading incubators frown on applications from single founders. Getting a business off the ground is hard work for a team of talented people. Successful founders need to be able to work well with others. Intrapersonal competencies are highly prized by employers.

    [ 21st Century Literacies & Writing Studies ]


Genre: Team Charter

By Sunday, 2/7, your startup needs to upload the first major iteration of its Team Charter.

In order to meet deadline, your team should meet as soon as possible. The first agenda item should be about identifying a common time that your team can meet. Ideally you can now define a time that your team will meet weekly. Even short meetings are better than no meetings. Brief meetings can help keep team members energized and focused.

Meet together online as a distributed work team. When meeting, as a group, work to draft a shared gDoc based on the advice located here about Team Charters.

Week 5, 2/8 to 2/14, Customer Discovery & Experiments

This week you’ll learn about Collaboration, Venture Design and Design Thinking

You have two major writing assignments this week:

  1. Genre: Research Protocol
    Prepare a Research Protocol for your customer discovery interviews. The audience for your research protocol are your colleagues on the startup project. Your research protocol should explain the business hypotheses you are tSubmit your Research Protocol to Canvas.
  2. Genre: Team Charter (Revised)
    Update your Team Charter based on your learnings for the week. Add a section that defines the customer discovery interviews each member of the team will conduct next week.

Assignments & Due Dates

  1. By Wednesday, 2/10/21, submit your Research Protocol for conducting next week’s customer discovery interviews.
    1. The audience for your research protocol is other students in the class. Your research protocol should clarify
      1. Do you have access to customers?
      2. What is the problem space?
      3. Are there any ethical concerns?
      4. What need, value proposition, business hypotheses are you testing.
        1. Note, it’s fine for now for multiple peers to test the same hypotheses. However, it is more strategic for individuals to select different business hypotheses to test.
      5. How will you conduct your investigation? Note: It’s fine to talk with people over the phone or Video (via ZoomSkypeGoogle HangoutsMicrosoft Teams, etc.). Feel free as well to send out a survey…
  2. Genre: Team Charter (Revised)
    By Sunday, 2/14/20, upload your Team Charter (Revised).
    1. Take a moment to revise & edit your Team Charter.
      • What is your team’s current best thinking about the problem space, customer, problem?
      • Add a section/table that clarifies the specific responsibilities for each team member regarding customer discovery
      • Add visuals and data visualizations.

Week 6, 2/15 to 2/21, Customer Discovery & Experiments

Your goal this week is to begin customer discovery research. Ideally, you have access to your customers for online meetings. If not, you may interview other students in the class or others and ask them to play a particular customer role.

Required Reading

Alexander Cowan’s Personas for Design, Development, & Growth

Alexander Cowan’s Needfinding with Problem Scenarios (aka Jobs-to-be-Done)

Assignments & Due Dates

Genres: Research Report & User Personas and User Stories.

  1. By Wednesday, 2/17/21, working individually,
    1. Write a memo to your colleagues at the startup that updates the team on your ongoing Customer Discovery efforts.

      Your email should clarify
      1. who are the customer(s)?
        1. what did you learn from the customer discovery interviews? How does the customer experience the problem? What is the ? What is the Problem Space? the Problem Definition?
        2. How does the customer experience the Problem scnario? the exigency, the problem, the pain? What is the customer’s need?
        3. what experiments did you run this week?
  2. Genre:
    By Sunday, 2/21/21, working individually,
    1. read all of your teammate’s Research Reports.
      • Can you find any commonalities in your colleague’s reports? Are any unique user personas emerging? Is this a kairotic moment? Or, are available solutions sufficient. Are the customer discovery interviews leading to any new value propositions? Have you reached a dead end?

        After reviewing your colleague’s Research Reports, is it possible to sketch some preliminary User Personas or Pivot? If so, please do so. If not, then address alternatives. Is this a good time to pivot to a new problem space?

        The medium of this text is up to you. You may present your user personas and user stories in a memo format. You could use PowerPoint presentation or Infographic.

        To receive credit for this project, each team member needs to upload a brief note to the instructor via Canvas that clarifies that person’s contributions to the project. User Personas and User Stories.

        Required: In order to receive full credit, Consider Cowan’s REACT Checklist when developing your user personas.
        • Real
        • Exact
        • Actionable
        • Clear
        • Testable

Week 7, 2/22 to 2/28, User Stories & Prototypes

Your goal this week is to determine whether your three-week long foray into rhetoric (especially rhetorical analysis), customer discovery, design thinking, and venture design has inspired you to develop a prototype of something that a customer would want.

A prototype is a sample of a finished product or a part of a product, a feature, that you have modeled. For instance,

  • if you were a web designer, you might use wireframing software to draw mockups of the applications features and interoperability
  • if you were an engineer, you might use AutoCAD to draw 2D and 3D designs for construction and manufacturing.

The medium of a prototype varies.


an MVP, a minimum viable product. It’s

Assignments & Due Dates

  1. By Wednesday, 2/24/21, working individually
    1. Write a Research Protocol to investigate a business hypothesis Write a memo to your colleagues at the startup that pitches your idea for a prototype. Explain how the prototype grew out of your Customer Discovery Interviews.
  2. By Sunday, 2/28/21, you should review your colleagues’ ideas for new features, value propositions, markets. Then meet in a distributed team environment. As a group, consider which

Week 8, 3/1 to 3/7, Business Plan


Assignments & Due Dates

  1. By Sunday, complete the two deliverables for the Progress Report Assignment

Week 9, 3/8 to 3/14, Peer Reviews of Business Plan

Assignments & Due Dates

Peer Review, as most of you explored in an earlier discussion post, is a vital workforce competency. Giving and getting critique can be challenging for employees and managers, particularly after teams have worked hard under deadlines to overcome obstacles and work as a team.

For this exercise, I ask that you

  1. review at least three other startups Business Plans
  2. write three critiques, one for each of the recommendation reports you reviewed. Limit each critique to between 75 and 100 words.
  3. publish your critiques at the Canvas Discussion forum linked for this assignment.

For each critique, I ask that you adopt a global perspective rather than a local perspective. You don’t need to address style, grammar, mechanics, punctuation. Instead, work to provide thoughtful, insightful criticism about the depth and appropriateness of the textual and empirical research employed by the investigators. Address substantive concerns, such as whether the problem definition seems well developed and whether the potential solutions seem like meaningful responses to the problem.

Week 10, 3/15 to 3/21, Pitch to Frank and Ellen Daveler Entrepreneurship Program. Pivot

[ 3/27, Last day to withdraw; no refund, no academic penalty ]
  1. By Wednesday
    1. a
    2. b
    3. c
  2. By Sunday, work with your team to complete a video pitch per the instructions provided by the Frank and Ellen Daveler Entrepreneurship Program Award | Online Application
Congrats! You have completed Module 2, The Customer Discovery Process

USF Opens Explorance Blue, its Course Evaluation System
You will receive an email this week from the university asking that you evaluate the course. Please take a moment to do so.


Week 11, 3/22/21 to 3/28/21 Video Pitch

This week you will want to first become comfortable with the genre of infographics and the requirements of The Infographic Project. By week’s end, you will develop and submit a video pitch to the Discussion Forum at Canvas in the Course Management System. Y

By Wednesday,

  • Go to this gDoc and add the URL(s) linking to your infographic & design memo.

By Sunday, 3/28,

  1. submit your Video Pitch for an infographic to the Discussion Board @ Canvas.
  2. Share your critique, which should be based on the peer-review guidelines published @ Peer Review of Infographics.
  3. Post your critique to the Discussion Board on Canvas.

Week 12, 3/29 to 4/4, Draft the Infographic

Your primary goal this week is to finalize a solid draft of your infographic and to begin drafting your Memo on Design Choices.

Week 13, 4/5 to 4/11, Peer Review

This week you have two tasks:

1. This week you are required to conduct two peer reviews of two other students’ or teams’ infographics and corresponding memos justifying their design choices. Please follow the peer-review guidelines published @ Peer Review of Infographics.

2. Work on developing your Memo on Design Choices

  1. Upload your infographic or the url that directs to it at the Course Management System
  2. Upload an outline or a draft of your Memo on Design Choices.
  3. Provide a link to your infographic at this gDoc.

4/12 to 4/18, Spring Break

Week 14, 4/19 to 4/25, The Pivot

Everybody Has a Plan Until They Get Punched in the Mouth

Mike Tyson


Course Evaluations Using Explorance Blue in the Canvas APP
I hope you found our work useful to your future career. Please don’t forget to take a moment to complete a course evaluation at Explorance Blue, the course-evaluation software for this course, which is accessible from Canvas.

Week 16, Final Exams

Congratulations! You have finished the course! There is no final examination in this class. There is no additional work due for Professional Writing.

*Please note this schedule may be changed at the discretion of the professor. To see the most up to date version of this schedule, you may need to clear the cache in your browser or try a different browser. Also, please note that the hyperlinks links in the text below take you to quick-reference support materials. You don’t have to follow/read these links unless you need a term explained or need a quick “how-to” reminder, or tutorial.

**See It’s All Yours, for the official course song. [Question: Is having a course song a convention, a genre of discourse?]

Works Cited

Osterwalder (2012), How to Design, Test and Build Business Models. You Tube.

Osterwalder, A., Pigneur, Y., In Clark, T., & Smith, A. (2010). Business model generation: A handbook for visionaries, game changers, and challengers.

Cowan, Alexander (2021). Needfinding with Problem Scenarios (AKA Jobs-to-be-done),