Diction

Words matter. Diction (aka Word Choice) plays a major role in determining whether or not an audience will read a message or understand a text. The audience for a text may disregard a text if they believe the writer, speaker, knowledge maker's . . .  vocabulary is inappropriate or vague and underdeveloped. Diction influences the tone, voice, and persona of the writer, speaker, knowledge maker*

Diction is

  • the vocabulary, the words, used in a text
  • the accent, pronunciation, or speech-sound quality of a speaker

Synonymous Term: Word Choice

Key Concepts: Register; Rhetorical Situation; Rhetorical Reasoning; Editing; Revision


Diction, aka word choice, plays a King-Kong size role in determining whether your message is perceived to be lucid, comprehensible, or idiotic.

You alienate your audience(s) at your peril. Vague language, generalizations, jargon, clichés—these elements of diction are characteristic of poor, undeveloped thinking.

Diction plays a substantive role in the clarity of your communications. In fact, ETS (Educational Testing Services), Pearson Education, and other assessment companies use wordiness and sentence length as the chief linguistic markers to determine scoring. Texts that have a robust and complex vocabulary score higher than texts that repeat dull words endlessly.

So . . . if you’re writing in a school context and you want a good grade or if you’re in a work context and want your readers to take your critiques and proposals seriously, you need to pay attention to your diction.

And in all contexts you want your language to be respectful and inclusive.

Dennotation and Connotation

Words are symbols. Words are composed of the signifier (i.e., the symbol) and the signified. The signified constitutes the symbol that represents the word. The signifier is the underlying meaning.

Words have meaning at two levels:

  1. the literal level, which is also called the denotative level. This is the meaning of the word that you’ll find in a dictionary, encyclopedia, or reference source.
  2. the connotative level, which concerns the emotional and cultural resonance of a word. Over time, as we learn new words, we associate those words with emotions and the context in which we learned them. Words, at the connotative level, can imply values, judgments, and feelings.

Words can have similar denotations and yet remarkably different connotations.

Positive ConnotationNeutral ConnotationNegative Connotation
Generousextravagant
ThriftyFiscally ConservativeCheap
ChildlikeYoungChildish
Strong WilledDeterminedPushy, bossy, stubbborn

Diction & Subjectivity

People may very well form different associations with a word. And, people may be unaware of how people in other discourse communities use a word. People have histories and those histories are narrated by a never ending stream of words that have gone underground, become embodied, and abbreviated. Thus, it is not surprising that communication is sometimes difficult to achieve. Words may not express your intentions. Words may undermine your ethos and cause your readers to respond emotionally or negatively to your texts.

“Words strain,
Crack and sometimes break, under the burden,
Under the tension, slip, slide, perish,
Decay with imprecision, will not stay in place,
Will not stay still.”

T.S. Eliot, “Burnt Norton”

Diction & the Writing Process

In order to ascertain the appropriate diction for a text you’re writing, you want to engage in rhetorical analysis and rhetorical reasoning to evaluate the Linguistic Register. Once you know the register for a rhetorical situation, you can identify how formal your language needs to be.

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