Joseph M. Moxley

Founder, Writing Commons
https://www.linkedin.com/in/joemoxley/
Writing Commons LLC



Joseph M. Moxley is

  • founder of Writing Commons
  • a professor of English at USF (Tampa)
  • founder of My Reviewers, a software application designed to facilitate document review, revision, collaboration, and writing program assessment.
    • Moxley secured over $3.4M in revenues and federal funding to develop that project, including awards from NSF (NSF SBIR, ICORPs, Prime).

Books

  1. Vieregge, Q., Stedman, K., Mitchell, T., & Moxley, J. (2012). Agency in the Age of Peer Production. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
  2. Fox. E., Moxley, J., Feizabadi, S., & Weisser, C. (2004).  Electronic Theses and Dissertations. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
  3. Moxley, J. & Fox, E. (Eds.) (2001).  The Guide for Electronic Theses and Dissertations. UNESCO.
  4. Moxley, J. (2003). College Writing Online. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
  5. Moxley, J. (2000). Web of Danger. Prescott, AZ: Saint Gaudens Press.
  6. Kirklighter, C. Vincent, C., & Moxley, J. (Eds.). (1997). Voices & Visions: Refiguring Ethnography in Composition. London: Heinemann.
  7. Moxley, J., & Taylor, T. (Eds.). (1997). Writing and Publishing for Academic Authors. 2nd ed. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
  8. Moxley, J. & Lenker, L.T. (Eds.). (1995). The Politics and Processes of Scholarship. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
  9. Moxley, J. (Ed.). (1994). Writing and Publishing for Academic Authors. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
  10. Moxley, J. (1994). Becoming an Academic Writer: A Modern Rhetoric. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath.
  11. Moxley, J. and Gale, F. (1993). Teaching Legal Writing: A Modern Rhetorical Approach. Chicago: American Bar Association.
  12. Gale, F. & Moxley, J. (1992). How to Write the Winning Brief. Chicago: American Bar Association.
  13. Moxley, J. Publish, Don’t Perish: The Scholar’s Guide to Academic Writing & Publishing. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1992. Print. Moxley, J. (1992).
  14. Moxley, J. (Ed.). (1989). Creative Writing in America: Theory and Pedagogy. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.

Translations

  • The Guide for Electronic Theses and Dissertations was translated in Greek, Spanish, French
  • Publish, Don’t Perish was translated by Greenwood in Chinese: Translated in Chinese in 2014: 成功發表論文,讓您獨占鰲頭 著 ...華樂絲語文顧

Grants

Moxley has been awarded over $1.5M in funding from NSF (National Science Foundation) and FIPSE (Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education).

Education

  • Ph.D., SUNY Buffalo, Measurement and Evaluation with a concentration in Writing Studies
  • MA, SUNY Buffalo, Creative Writing
  • BA, University of Utah, English
  • BA, University of Utah, Psychology

Awards

  • Distinguished Book Award for College Writing Online. Computers and Composition. 2004
  • Teaching and Learning Innovator Award for My Reviewers. Campus Technology. 2016
  • Microsoft Scholar Award ($100,000). Microsoft Corporation. 2000
  • Writing Program Certificate of Excellence Award. College Composition and Communication & NCTE, 2011/2012
  • USF Excellence in Undergraduate Teaching Award, 1996
  • USF Excellence in Undergraduate Teaching Award, 1993
  • USF Excellence in Undergraduate Teaching Award, 1990

*Writing Commons is an independent effort from Professor Moxley's work at the University of South Florida (USF). USF has approved this project as an independent, outside activity. However,Writing Commons is neither affiliated with nor endorsed by USF.
  1. 3/18/13 is a pretty huge day @Writing Commons Thanks to Duke MOOC

    In past blogs, I’ve chronicled the development of Writing Commons, the Open Education Home for Writers, with hopes that my experiences developing an Open Education Resource (OER) might be of interest to faculty across the disciplines.  I’ve argued that faculty might want to consider contributing to Writing Commons or other OERs that are peer-reviewed, that faculty might want to develop their own OERs and...

    Published on Mar 21st 2013

  2. A letter from the Founder of Writing Commons

    Dear Friends, Welcome to the new site design for Writing Commons, the open education home for writers. Our new design is not only more attractive and accessible thanks to the creative work of Alston Chapman, but it is also much better protected against hackers. Our new website was precipitated by a recent challenge we faced at Writing Commons: between November...

    Published on Apr 15th 2016

  3. Academic Writing – Academic Prose Style

    What is Academic Writing? Academic writing refers to the texts produced by students, professors, and investigators who are engaged in acts of literacy and scholarship. What is an Academic Writing Prose Style? Academic Prose Style is a style of writing that is produced by students, professors, and investigators. A text that reflects an academic prose style is Research-basedAcademic writing tends...

    Published on Jul 26th 2020

  4. ACRL Information Literacy Perspectives & Practices

    In Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education, the ACRL (Association of College and Research Libraries) imagines information literacy to be comprised of six interconnected frameworks: Authority is Constructed & ContextualInformation Creation as a ProcessInformation Has ValueResearch as InquiryScholarship as a ConversationSearching as Strategic Exploration The ACRL imagines these conceptual frameworks, these mindsets, to be foundational to critical literacy as...

    Published on Mar 06th 2020

  5. Adopt Effective Writing Habits

    Summary Understand the psychology of writing, particularly the importance of balancing believing with doubting. Learn how to overcome "writer's block" and manage difficult writing assignments.When it comes to writing projects, do you tend to procrastinate and then binge-write around the deadline time? Do you ever have difficulties scheduling your writing work so that it doesn't become aversive? The following suggestions...

    Published on Oct 28th 2009

  6. Adoptions

    As discussed at About, Writing Commons aspires to provide the resources college students need to improve their writing, research, and critical thinking. That said, as a global resource, we do not wish to impose a single vision for writing pedagogy. As rhetoricians and compositionists, we embrace linguistic and pedagogical diversity.  We aspire to celebrate and interrogate context-based writing processes, genres, and methodologies....

    Published on Mar 12th 2013

  7. Annotated Bibliography

    Organize your research efforts and extend your thinking on a research topic by creating an annotated bibliography. An annotated bibliography is a list of reference sources and critical summaries/evaluations of the citations. Typically, researchers will: Provide the citation information for each source following the rules of a particular bibliography style (e.g., MLA Style, APA Style, Chicago Style). Logically, you want...

    Published on Mar 20th 2010

  8. Apostrophes

    Use an apostrophe to denote ownership to a singular or plural noun and indefinite pronoun by adding an -'s if the word doesn't end in -s. Of all forms of punctuation, the apostrophe appears to be in greatest peril of extinction. For proof that the apostrophe should be placed on an endangered species list in some grammarian's office, one needs...

    Published on Oct 31st 2009

  9. Applied Research, Basic Research

    Research efforts are sometimes categorized by the aim or motivation of the investigator. In the U.S., funding agencies such as NIH and NSF distinguish between applied research and basic (aka fundamental or pure) research in their RFPs, Request for Propoals: Applied ResearchThe research is conducted to solve a particular problem for specific situation.Basic ResearchThe research is conducted to advance knowledge...

    Published on Mar 29th 2020

  10. Archaism

    What is an Archaism? An archaism is an out-of-style word or phrase, such as “whilst,” “thusly,” or “thou.” Key Concepts: Diction Why Do Archaisms Matter? When cultivating your own personal writing style, you want to avoid sounding stilted, rehearsed, artificial. And one surefire way to sound artificial is to produce stilted writing by loading your text with old theatrical-sounding words. Here...

    Published on Mar 07th 2012

  11. Articles

    English has three articles: a, an, and the. These little words are used to introduce certain nouns, but there are specific rules regarding the use of each one. When do I use an article? "A" is used before a general noun that has not been introduced to the reader. A cat walked by my door. (Note: I don't know this...

    Published on Feb 20th 2020

  12. Attribution

    What is Attribution? Attribution refers to the act of citation--i.e., the act of identifying the original source for a summary, paraphrase, or quote. People attribute sources to acknowledge the inventions and ideas of othersto adhere to copyright law and avoid plagiarismto follow professional standards of ethical behavior in the workplaceto bolster our ethos in texts we are composingto allow readers...

    Published on Dec 15th 2019

  13. Audience – Audience Awareness

    What is Audience? Audience refers to the intended readers, listeners, and users of a text or product a discourse communityAudience may refer to a group of people who share expectations about the appropriate writing style for a particular rhetorical situation. For instance, in American politics, the republicans and the democrats may be thought of as two distinct discourse communities. Each...

    Published on Aug 07th 2019

  14. Authority is Constructed & Contextual

    Authority is Constructed and Contextual, an Information Literacy Framework proposed by the Association of College and Research Libraries, highlights the rhetoricity of language practices: Authority is Constructed concerns ways an expert's research methods or personal and professional qualifications provides ethos.an expert engages in textual research to forage ideas across disciplines, debate/dispute/extend ideas, or develop knowledge claims over time.Authority is Contextual...

    Published on Aug 07th 2019

  15. Autobiography

    Who are you? How have your experiences shaped your sense of what is important or possible? Realize the benefits of using writing to reflect on your life. Read exemplary autobiographies and write about a significant, unusual, or dramatic event in your life. Autobiographies are stories that people write about themselves. These stories can be factual accounts of significant, unusual, or...

    Published on Oct 21st 2009

  16. Avoid Procrastination

    Avoid procrastination and gain some control over how you manage your time while developing documents. One of the most important lessons writers must learn is to handle the language of time. Judging from the multitude of books dedicated to time management--indeed whole forests have given way to time-managementspecialists--many of us have difficulties overcoming procrastination, knowing when to research, when to...

    Published on Oct 16th 2009

  17. AWK – Awkward Writing

    AWK (Awkward) is an abbreviation some teachers and copy editors use to tell writers that they find some bit of discourse --perhaps a word, phrase, clause, sentence -- to be unnecessarily confusing. AWK, for Awkward, is shorthand: it's an informal way for a reviewer (see Critique) to provide critical feedback. Experienced writers use AWK to reference a number of problems,...

    Published on Jan 31st 2020

  18. Balance Believing with Doubting

    Do not let what you cannot do interfere with what you can doJohn Wooden, Inspirational Speaker Just about everyone has moments of despair and doubt about their writing. After countless hours and the feeling that your work has been futile, that you have not clearly expressed an important concept or relationship, you may feel the urge to give up, to...

    Published on May 20th 2011

  19. Best Search Tools for Images

    What are the Best Search Tools for Images? There are loads of very good search tools for finding images on the internet, including Creative Commons SearchGoogle ImagesWikimedia Commons In order to reuse an image you find on the internet, you need to ensure the copyright license associated with it permits reuse. Publishing copyrighted information without permission is unethical and can...

    Published on Sep 06th 2021

  20. Beware of “Oh, that makes sense”: Ethos in Context

    There is also, however, the credibility that comes from saying or writing something that the audience already believes or that reinforces the audience's experience. We should treat this kind of ethos with a healthy dose of suspicion. Just because something sounds right to you or makes you feel good about what you believe does not mean that it is true....

    Published on Apr 16th 2012

  21. Blogging

    What is blogging? How is blogging "academic"? Most importantly, why is my teacher asking me to blog? It’s likely that some, if not all, of these questions come to mind as your first-year composition professor introduces blogging as a form of academic writing. Yes, blogging can be academic. But how? More importantly, how is blogging a way of connecting lofty,...

    Published on May 16th 2012

  22. Brevity

    What is brevity? Brevity is an aesthetic judgment made by a reader, audience, or user about the absence or presence of wordiness or unnecessary information/data in a text. Not surprisingly — who isn't in a hurry these days? — brevity is a highly prized linguistic attribute. Brevity is often associated with clarity, the ultimate goal of most communications. Synonyms direct,...

    Published on Sep 10th 2019

  23. Burke’s Pentad

    Burke's Pentad is a critical, rhetorical perspective that is used both as a heuristic a tool of rhetorical analysis. The pentad consists of five variables—aka rhetorical constraints. Burke believed these contextual elements have affordances and constraints and that these elements and the relationships among these elements shape the writer's, speaker's, knowledge maker's composing processes: The actThe sceneThe agentThe agency or...

    Published on Oct 31st 2009

  24. Causes & Effects

    "Why are things like this? What is the effect, or result, of this?" and " What causes this?" These questions guide authors as they analyze or argue about causal relationships, such as "What is the effect of a college education on income?" Unlike explanations of processes, which follow a chronological order of events, cause and effect texts are deeply speculative...

    Published on Oct 21st 2009

  25. Charts, Figures, Graphs, Tables

    Charts and graphs are methods of data visualization: Tables plot data or information in rows and columnsCharts, Figures, and Graphs visually represent data or information. Common examples of charts include pie charts, bar charts, and line charts Key Concepts: Text & Intertextuality; Design Tables and graphs enable you to reach visual learners. When you select information for graphical representation, you...

    Published on Nov 01st 2009

  26. Choppy Writing

    Choppy writing uses short words and simplistic diction. short, primer-style sentences (i.e., sentences that don't connect to each other). How can I improve choppy writing? Connect some of your ideas together with conjunctions and/or segues. Make two short sentences into one longer one. Writing feels choppy when the sentences are very short, and the sentences do not connect to each...

    Published on Feb 27th 2020

  27. Citation

    What is Citation? Citation is the act of referencing or attributing a source of informationa commodity protected by intellectual property laws. Synonyms A citation is equivalent to a reference or an attribution. Citation vs Reference Some websites suggest there's a difference between a citation and reference: they claim the term references refers to the list of citations you provide at...

    Published on Jan 23rd 2022

  28. Clarity

    What is Clarity? Clarity refers to a whether a writer's, speaker's, knowledge worker's . . . text is lucid, understandable, comprehensible.A writer's text is said to practice clarity when readers find their texts easy to understand or use. a measure of readability based on sentence patterns, sentence structure, sentence type, and diction (especially vocabulary). Clarity tends to be chiefly comprised...

    Published on Jan 31st 2020

  29. Classification

    Organize information into logical groups. As with describing, narrating, defining, and comparing, classifying is a component of all writing genres. Just as writers pause to describe ideas and events or define new concepts in most documents, they routinely classify information--that is, show or tell readers how information can be grouped into categories. Occasionally, an entire document focuses on explaining a...

    Published on Nov 01st 2009

  30. Cluster Diagrams & Spider Maps

    Use visual brainstorming to develop and organize your ideas. Cluster diagrams, spider maps, mind maps--these terms are used interchangeably to describe the practice of visually brainstorming about a topic. Modern readers love cluster diagrams and spider maps because they enable readers to discern your purpose and organization in a moment. When Is Clustering/Spider Mapping Useful? As depicted below, writers use...

    Published on Oct 31st 2009

  31. Code Switching

    Definition - What is Code Switching? Code switching is a linguistic term used to describe the use of multiple languages, dialects, or registers in a conversation or texta sociological term used to describe how people from different discourse communities (aka cultures, subcultures, community of practice) adopt shared mannerisms, body language, slang, syntax, and diction of a discourse community to express...

    Published on Apr 29th 2021

  32. Collaboration

    Collaboration Definition Collaboration refers to the process of learning from and working with others to achieve shared goals, such as coauthoring texts and developing new inventions, applications, processes. As humans, we create new knowledge by engaging in dialog (e.g., scholarly conversations) and by co-authoring, peer reviewing and critiquing texts.  Collaboration is a creative process, a dominant activity during composing. By working with one another in teams, we can bounce ideas off...

    Published on Sep 18th 2019

  33. Collaboration Tools

    What are Collaboration Tools? Collaboration tools are techniques, applications, processes that are designed to facilitate collaborative processes. Types of Collaboration Tools Collaboration tools are now ubiquitous. Work and learning have all gone online. You can video conference with others on your cell phone, iWatch, personal computer. Large groups of people can work synchronously on tools such as wikis, Microsoft One...

    Published on Oct 02nd 2019

  34. Color – Color Theory

    What is Color? Color is a design element that writers, speakers, knowledge workers use to communicate. Colors evoke emotions, positive and negative connotations, and the attention of audience. When colors are mispaired, they can confuse and even alienate users. Color is a quality of light. When light shines on something, colors reflect off the object. What is Color Theory? Color...

    Published on Nov 25th 2020

  35. Comma Splice

    What is a Comma Splice? A comma splice is a sentence error that occurs when two independent clauses (aka two complete sentences) are connected with just a comma rather than end-mark punctuation. Related Concepts: Common Sentence Error; Coordination & Subordination; Register; Sentence; Parts of a Sentence; Independent Clauses, Dependent Clauses & Phrases Comma Splice Examples A comma splice divides two independent clauses with a comma. John ran quickly toward the exit, he...

    Published on Feb 20th 2020

  36. Communication

    What is Communication? Communication refers to the writer's, speaker's, knowledge worker's . . . production (aka composing) of texts (aka compositions)Note: body language, alphabetical language, and visual language are examples of semiotic systems that people use to communicatethe reader's, listener's, user's . . . interpretation of texts. Thus, at its core communication concerns the creation or production of discourse: composing,...

    Published on Sep 22nd 2019

  37. Comparison & Contrast

    Define content by comparing and contrasting categories or classes of objects. Comparing and contrasting issues can be a powerful way to organize and understand knowledge. Typically, comparing and contrasting require you to define a class or category of objects and then define their similarities and differences. Comparing and contrasting are very natural processes, a strategy we employ in our everyday...

    Published on Nov 01st 2009

  38. Composing, Writing, Drafting

    What is Composing? Composing is the act of writing—the act of making meaning. Composing is the moment your thoughts and feelings find symbolic expression in some sort of language (e.g., alphabetical, visual , and quantitative language)a way of thinking, a way of problem solvinga subject of study, an interdisciplinary academic discipline (see Writing Studies). Synonyms brainstorm, compose, outline, draft, write,...

    Published on Nov 17th 2019

  39. Composition Studies

    Composition Studies is an academic discipline chiefly concerned with the study of composinga subdiscipline of Writing Studies. Scholars and researchers in Composition Studies (aka Compositionists) focus on investigating composing processes (also known as creative processes). Related: Composing, Writing, Drafting; The Writing Process In their introduction to Exploring Composition Studies: Sites, Issues, Perspectives, Kelly Ritter and Paul Kei Matsuda sketch a...

    Published on Oct 11th 2019

  40. Concrete Language, Sensory Language

    What is Concrete Language, Sensory Language? Concrete, Sensory Language references specific places, events, people, and tangible topicsinvokes the readers' senses (taste, smell, touch, sight, and sound)an attribute of prose associated with clarity and simplicity. Concrete, sensory language is the antithesis of abstract language, which tends to be intangible and metaphysical. Related Concepts: Description; Code Switching; Diction; Figurative Language; Given to...

    Published on Apr 02nd 2012

  41. Conflict Resolution

    What is Conflict Resolution? Conflict Resolution refers to efforts by individuals or teams to resolve disputes and negotiate settlements. Key Concepts: Coauthorship; Teamwork; Team Charter "In the workforce, employers want employees who can anticipate obstacles to project completion, develop contingency plans to address the obstacles, and take corrective action when projects go off track. Desirable employees are those who can...

    Published on Nov 18th 2019

  42. Conjunctions

    Conjunctions, a part of speech, refer to words that connect words, phrases, or clauses. Words that show relationships between ideas, across words, phrases, clauses, and sentences. Key Concepts: Coordination & Subordination; Organizational Schema; Sentences; Writer-Based vs. Reader-Based Prose Why Do Conjunctions Matter? Writers, speakers, knowledge workers . . . use conjunctions to aid coherence—especially to join co-equal ideas via coordinating...

    Published on Feb 14th 2020

  43. Consider Your Voice, Tone, and Persona

    Enhance the likelihood that readers will respond favorably to your document by projecting an effective voice, tone, and persona.Voice, Tone, and Persona are slippery terms/concepts. In some instances, these terms can be used interchangeably, yet important differences do exist. Tone When writers and English instructors talk about tone, they are typically referring to the author's stance toward his or her...

    Published on Nov 07th 2009

  44. Contrary to Arguments by Hardcore Open Education Advocates, Creative Commons NC ND is a Valid License for Academic Authors

    Various talented folks and communities (e.g., the Open Knowledge Foundation and QuestionCopyright.org) believe Creative Commons should retire its NC ND clauses.  Students for Free Culture argue the NC clause is “completely antithetical to free culture (it retains a commercial monopoly on the work).”   Timothy Vollmer  asserts the NC ND clauses should be renamed ““Commercial Rights Reserved” because this license fails to “provide for all of [these] freedoms: the...

    Published on Mar 21st 2013

  45. Coordinating Conjunctions

    Coordinating conjunctions are words that are used to join two sentences together. Example: I'm reading, and I'm writing. Key Concepts: Flow, Coherence, Unity; Grammar; Organization; Organizational Schema & Logical Reasoning; Parts of Speech; Sentences; Writer-Based vs. Reader-Based Prose Commas are used when two independent clauses are connected by coordinating conjunctions: Ex: She was tired, so she went home.She was tired...

    Published on Feb 24th 2020

  46. Copy – Copy Writing

    What is Copy? Copy is language that accompanies a visual text, such as an infographic or information/data visualization Legends, captions, headers—these are samples of copy. The SEO (Search Engine Optimization) work that SEO copywriters do is a form of copy. Other examples of copy include snippets of language used in data/information visualizations, advertisements, and other visual documents. Copy is typically...

    Published on Nov 25th 2020

  47. Creating Flow via Repetition

    Writers enhance flow by repeating key words or phrases in a text to invoke recall and pathos. Repetition is key to improving a paragraph’s flow, connecting related ideas and keeping the reader on track. Still, there is a difference between obvious and boring repetition and intriguing and effective repetition. Consider this paragraph: My brother is older and he has always...

    Published on Jan 31st 2020

  48. Creative Writing

    What is Creative Writing? Creative Writing is a mega-genre.  It's a cluster of genres including poetry, fiction, drama, screenwriting, creative, memoir, and travel writing. Creative Writing tends to be expressive, imaginative, and literary. People read, watch and listen to creative writing for pleasure, entertainment and the pursuit of knowledge. Thanks to emerging technologies, new creative writing genres are emerging, such...

    Published on Oct 29th 2010

  49. Crisis Communication Plan

    Learning Objective Understand how to prepare a crisis communication plan. A rumor that the CEO is ill pulls down the stock price. A plant explosion kills several workers and requires evacuating residents on several surrounding city blocks. Risk management seeks to address these many risks, including prevention as well as liability, but emergency and crisis situations happen nevertheless. In addition,...

    Published on Jan 08th 2013

  50. Critical Literacy

    Critical literacy concerns critical readingis concerned with rhetorical analysis of power relationships. engages students in metacognition and self reflection about the Currency, Relevance, Authority, Accuracy, Purpose of knowledge claims. In SIFT (The Four Moves), Mike Caulfield blogs about four critical literary perspectives: Stop, Investigate, Find, Trace. StopInvestigate the Source Find trusted coverageTrace claims, quotes, and media back to the original context

    Published on Mar 10th 2020

  51. Critique

    What is Critique? Critique is the practice of giving feedback—positive, negative, and somewhere in betweenthe practice of assessing and grading texts. Related Concepts: Contract Grading; Empathetic Information Literacy; Leadership; Openness Why Does Critique Matter? Critique is a complex human phenomenon. At times critique can be messy, chaotic, and counterproductive. It can leave writers mute, feeling futile. Feedback can be destructive,...

    Published on Aug 07th 2019

  52. Dashes

    A dash (—) is a punctuation mark used to set off an idea within a sentence and may be used alone or in pairs. Dashes interrupt a thought in a more dramatic way than a phrase enclosed in commas, but less theatrically than parentheses. To form a dash, type two hyphens—without a space before, after, or between them—and your word...

    Published on Sep 11th 2019

  53. Dashes and Parentheses

    Create emphasis and define terms by interrupting the flow of a sentence by using a dash; know when the dash must be used as opposed to the comma. Some stylists view the dash with great suspicion--the sort of suspicion that a man in the 1990s who wears a plaid leisure suit to work would arouse. Some people erroneously believe that...

    Published on Oct 31st 2009

  54. Deductive Order, Deductive Reasoning, Deductive Writing

    Deductive Order and Deductive Reasoning refer to the practice of reasoning and organizing information from general premises to the specifics that prove/disprove the premisefrom a theoretical model to observations that confirm/disconfirm the modelfrom abstractions to specifics. Deductive Writing is a style of prose wherein the rhetor presents a claim/thesis/hypothesis in introductory sentences/paragraphs and then uses subsequent paragraphs to explicate, question,...

    Published on Nov 01st 2009

  55. Demystify Research Methods

    Critique research myths that may be impairing your ability to locate, evaluate, and use information. If you are like most people, you have some definite ideas about what research is. You may envision a pale figure in a white lab coat bent over a microscope or a beaker of bubbling liquid. Perhaps you imagine this isolated and humorless figure engaged...

    Published on Oct 04th 2010

  56. Demystify Writing Misconceptions

    Learn the beliefs that empower successful academic authors. To become a competent, confident writer, you may find it useful to analyze your attitudes about writing. After all, your assumptions about how writers work can limit your imagination and the quality of your finished product. You can debunk a truckload of myths about writing by analyzing how you write, how your...

    Published on Oct 28th 2009

  57. Description

    Enable readers to visualize your message by appealing to the five senses and using specific details. Description is an important feature of all writing genres. Writers use description to support arguments and illustrate concepts and theories. They try to invoke mental pictures of a place so readers can imagine it in their minds. Occasionally writers organize an entire document according...

    Published on Nov 01st 2009

  58. Description

    What is Description? Description is the use of prose—especially concrete, sensory language and figurative language—to describe events, people, ideas, concepts a dominant and powerful form of human expressionDescription plays a role in all genres. In fact, it's commonplace for writers to describe the context that informs their text, including a discussion of ongoing scholarly conversationsa way of categorizing discoursea dominant...

    Published on Aug 07th 2019

  59. Design

    Design Definition - Summary Design, most conventionally, is how something looks or works. Yet, design is also a semiotic system, a way of communicating to othersa signifier of identity, a representation of the author's ethosa way of thinking, a method for developing applications, products, and servicesa semiotic process, a form of visual languagea catechism, a set of assumptions, an interpretative...

    Published on Mar 04th 2020

  60. Design Thinking

    Design Thinking is a human-centered, empirical research method that employs user-centric methods (e.g., customer discovery interviews, focus groups, usability studies) to solve problems and develop products and applications that people want. People (e.g., founders, product managers, developers, engineers) engage in design thinking when they set aside their egos and endeavor to listen to consumers and stakeholders in a probleplans and...

    Published on Jan 09th 2021

  61. Despair in the Open Education World

    Thus far, 2013 has been a tough year for open-education advocates. As Flat World Knowledge promised at the tail-end of 2012, the publisher no longer provides a CC 3.0 NC SA version of its textbooks for students.  In response, Leslie Scott endeavored to defend the commons by crowd-sourcing an effort to harvest Flat World Knowledge’s catalog (see  “All I want for Christmas”)....

    Published on Mar 21st 2013

  62. Develop Effective Writing Habits

    Although individual writing processes are vastly different, composition scholarship provides evidence of patterns across disparate writing methodologies. This section identifies and explains some of the most notable patterns of successful compositionists. We suggest that successful compositionist practice some of the following strategies: Return, Revise, Risk, Reject. Researchers in the field of composition and rhetoric have uncovered important insights regarding effective...

    Published on Nov 11th 2009

  63. Diction

    What is Diction? Diction is a writer or speaker's choice of wordsthe appropriateness of words given the rhetorical situation, especially audience and topica scale, a measure, of the formality of the occasion: It's commonplace to categorize discourse into three measures of formality: formal, standard, informalthe accent, pronunciation, or speech-sound quality of a speaker. Traditionally diction solely concerns word choice; yet...

    Published on Sep 10th 2019

  64. Digital Literacy

    Literacy practices are undergoing major transformations. Thanks to new writing spaces, today's college students are redefining reading, research, collaboration, writing, and publishing practices. In addition to altering writing processes, new writing spaces are stretching the boundaries of academic writing, creating new genres and new conventions for structuring texts. Everyone has an opportunity to be a Gutenberg or a Thomas Paine, to...

    Published on Oct 29th 2010

  65. Double-Entry Response Format

    The double-entry format is a useful technique to help you extend your thinking about a source or to critique an rhetor's text. One very effective technique for avoiding note-bound prose is to respond to powerful quotations in what  Ann Berthoff calls the double-entry notebook form. The double-entry form shows the direct quotation on the left side of the page and...

    Published on Mar 20th 2010

  66. Edit for Diction

    A diction problem happens when you use a word in the wrong context or use a word that does not mean what you intended it to mean in that situation. Key Concepts: Register; Rhetorical Reasoning Writers, speakers, knowledge workers . . . are wise to engage in self critique of their writing. It's particularly important for writers to consider the...

    Published on Apr 13th 2012

  67. Edit for Sentence Structure

    Editing for Sentence Structure involves examining the grammatical structure of your sentences. Before engaging in the exercise below, be sure to read Sentences, Sentence Structure. How do I Edit my texts at the Sentence Level? Sentence Patterns are groups sentences that share similar grammatical structures. Consider Your Audience When assessing whether your sentences are too long or complex, consider your...

    Published on Oct 31st 2009

  68. Edit for Strings of Prepositional Phrases

    Eliminate choppy writing by avoiding unnecessary prepositions. When used in moderation, prepositions are invaluable: they work as connecting words, linking the object of the preposition to a word that appears earlier in the sentence. Like linking verbs, however, prepositions do not convey action, nor do they subordinate one thought to another. Instead, they merely link chunks of meaning that readers...

    Published on Oct 31st 2009

  69. Edit Paragraphs

    First, to edit your texts at the paragraph level, refresh your understanding about paragraph conventions. Check out these articles at Writing Commons: Paragraph Schemas Flow, Transitions, Coherence @ Paragraph LevelParagraph TransitionsSentence Order within ParagraphsTopic Sentences & Paragraph DevelopmentUnity @ the Paragraph Level Second, look individually and critically at each paragraph from the perspective of Paragraph UnityParagraph CoherenceParagraph Concision Evaluate Paragraph...

    Published on May 09th 2011

  70. Editing

    Definition Editing is the act of critically reviewing a text with the goal of improving it in some way. For example, writers, speakers, knowledge workers . . .. edit texts to eliminate errors that undermine communicationadopt a voice, tone, persona, and writing style appropriate for a rhetorical situation simplify, eliminate wordiness, and facilitate clarity. Related Concepts: Global Perspective; Local Perspective;...

    Published on Dec 16th 2019

  71. Elements of Art – Elements of Design

    What are the Elements of Art? The elements of art (or design) refers to color, copy, form, line, shape, space, texture, typography, and value. These are the basic building blocks of art (e.g., paintings, drawings, sculptures) and visual communication. Artists, graphic designers, and others use these elements to compose art and communicate using the power of visual language. Just as...

    Published on Feb 11th 2022

  72. Eliminate “to be” Verbs

    In our daily speech and in rough drafts, we tend to rely heavily on the various forms of the verb to be. The verb to be is unlike any other verb because it is inert--that is, it doesn't show any action. For example, in the sentence "The researcher is a professor at Duke" the verb is merely connects the subject with what grammarians...

    Published on Oct 31st 2009

  73. Establish a Comfortable Place to Write

    Ideally, you should find a quiet place where all your needed writing resources—such as a personal computer, dictionary, and paper—are set up. To help you focus on the work at hand, you may need a place that is reasonably free of distractions. Determine Your Most Energetic Time of Day "In fact I think the best regimen is to get up...

    Published on May 23rd 2011

  74. Ethnography

    Ethnography involves studying a specific culture or community. By living among the members of a culture and playing the role of participant-observer, ethnographers attempt to define the beliefs, rituals, symbols, problems, and patterns of behavior that distinguish this culture from other dominant cultures. The purpose of ethnography is not to generalize from a smaller population to a larger one. Instead,...

    Published on Mar 27th 2020

  75. Evidence

    Definition Evidence is information that a writer, speaker, knowledge maker . . . weaves into discourse in order to substantiate claims When writers make claims, critical readers expect them to substantiate those claims with evidence (see Argumentation)a defining attribute of successful workplace and school-based writing (see reader-based prose vs writer-based prose). Related Concepts: Concrete, Sensory Language; Claim; Information, Data; Rhetorical...

    Published on Oct 29th 2019

  76. Examples of Effective Summaries and Paraphrases (MLA Style)

    Sample Contextualizing for the Source Being Fluent with Information Technology explores why people need to understand and utilize information technology. Published by The National Academies in 1997, the book is written by the Committee on Information Technology and Literacy, including Lawrence Snyder, University of Washington, Chair; Alfred V. Aho, Lucent Technologies, Inc.; Marcia Linn, University of California at Berkeley; Arnold Packer,...

    Published on Mar 20th 2010

  77. Felt Sense

    What is Felt Sense? Felt Sense refers to the forge, the wellspring of creativity"the soft underbelly of thought . . . a kind of bodily awareness that . . . can be used as a tool . . . a bodily awareness that . . . encompasses everything you feel and know about a given subject at a given time...

    Published on May 25th 2021

  78. Flow – How to Create Flow in Writing

    What is Flow? Flow refers to the logical coherence of a text, a sense of organization, a sense that the text uses the best organizational schema given the complexities of the rhetorical situationthe sense that new information/data is woven into a text in ways that make logical and rhetorical sensethe sense a writer, speaker, knowledge worker . . . or...

    Published on Sep 10th 2019

  79. Formatting Styles

    Understand conventions for citing information. Different academic disciplines and journals have unique formatting guidelines for citing sources and formatting research reports. Remarkably, there are hundreds of different formatting guidelines for referencing sources. This section briefly summarizes the most popular citation styles used in colleges and universities: 1. MLA Humanities professors commonly require citations to be formatted according to MLA (Modern...

    Published on Mar 20th 2010

  80. Generalizations, Overgeneralizations

    What is Overgeneralization? Overgeneralizations are sweeping generalizations about a group of people, things, topics. Here are some examples of overgeneralizations: Pit bulls are aggressive.Rich people are greedy.Beautiful people are conceited.Politicians are corrupt.People who commit crimes come from troubled backgrounds.College students love partying.Marijuana users are lazy.People always demand too much of my time.Why do I always catch every red light?She always...

    Published on Dec 13th 2021

  81. Genre

    Genre Definition Most simply, Genre refers to a classification scheme for sorting texts according to different discourse aimsExamples: Drama, Fable, Fairy Tale, etc.according to the absence or presence of commonplace rhetorical moves associated with recurring situated practices.Examples of commonplace rhetorical moves in academic writing:Move 1 Establishing a territoryMove 2 Establishing a nicheMove 3 Occupying the niche (Swales and Feak 2004)according...

    Published on Jul 24th 2019

  82. Global Perspective

    What is a Global Perspective? Global perspective is term used to discuss some overall attribute of a text. For instance, when critiquing your work, a teacher or editor might comment that a text lacks a consistent point of view, perspective on the topic, or rhetorical stancewhen engaged in rhetorical analysis about a text such as a recent movie, you might...

    Published on Dec 15th 2019

  83. Government Publications

    Review research reports, pamphlets, or statistics published by the Government Printing Office (GPO). You may find it useful to discover whether the United States Government Printing Office (GPO) has published any research reports, pamphlets, or statistics on your subject. The GPO, along with the United Nations organizations, prints countless essays, pamphlets and research studies on the law, history, and such...

    Published on Mar 05th 2010

  84. Grammar

    What is Grammar? Grammar refers to the rules and conventions that inform how people and discourse communities use signs (e.g., body language, oral, written, and visual language) to communicate, includingmorphological rulesstructure & construction of words such as word roots, prefixes, and morphemesphonological rulessound, sound combinationssyntactical rulesword order, word combinationsan academic discipline, a field of studyGrammar is a topic of study...

    Published on Sep 10th 2019

  85. Group Brainstorming & Online Conversations

    Use talk-and-then-write strategies to jump-start writing projects. Dialoguing, dictating, and group brainstorming all rely on talking to generate writing. Many people get their best ideas discussing issues and ideas with people. Lawyers, doctors, and business leaders have frequently used dictation to draft documents. Now, as a student, you can also dictate, thanks to voice recognition software. IBM Via Voice and Dragon,...

    Published on Oct 31st 2009

  86. Growth Mindset

    Growth Mindset refers to a personality construct theorized by Carol S. Dweck. People with a Growth Mindset assume traits such as intelligence and talent are a product of hard work, grit, determination. Have you ever heard anyone say or have you thought yourself, “I’m just not good at math,” or “I’m just not any good at writing?” Statements like these...

    Published on Nov 20th 2019

  87. Hierarchical Maps

    Use visual brainstorming to develop and organize your ideas. Like cluster/spider maps, hierarchical maps involve drawing a graphical representation of ideas. Unlike clustering, cluster/spider maps are chiefly concerned with analyzing relationships among ideas. When Are Hierarchical Maps Useful? Mapping is a useful organizing and revising tool when you want to see if you've made connections clear among ideas or if...

    Published on Oct 31st 2009

  88. Homonym Usage

    How might you choose a homonym that is spelled correctly and communicates your meaning accurately? Consult a dictionary or thesaurus: If you experience a niggling feeling that you haven’t used the correct word, consult a dictionary or thesaurus. Make cautious use of your computer’s word processor: Correct errors that are indicated by the grammar and spell check function. However, keep...

    Published on Apr 02nd 2012

  89. How Can You Determine Whether to Quote, Paraphrase, or Summarize?

    Summary: Learn how to introduce and correctly summarize, paraphrase, and cite sources. Clarify the research methods employed by your sources. Your instructors do not want to read miscellaneous quotations that are thrown together one after another. The problem with essays that use extensive direct quotations is that they tend to lack voice, continuity, or authority. If you offer quotations every few...

    Published on Mar 20th 2010

  90. Hyphens

    A hyphen (-) is used in the middle of a multi-word idea or joins two related words together. (The hyphen key is next to the +/= key on your keyboard (the same key with the underscore _ ) Use hyphens to join compound words and avoid awkward or confusing word combinations. A hyphen (-) is used in the middle of...

    Published on Sep 11th 2019

  91. Image Formats

    What are bitmap images? GIFs (Graphics Interchange Format) and JPEGs (Joint Photographic Experts Group) are bitmaps; they use pixels to display colors. In other words, bitmaps use a grid of squares, and each square, each pixel, can represent a color. Different computer monitors have different numbers of bits they can display for each pixel. A bit is the smallest amount...

    Published on Nov 01st 2009

  92. Inclusive Language

    What is Inclusive Language? Biased Language? Inclusive language (aka biased language) is language that is respectful and sensitive to ageism, gender, ethnicity, disability, sexual orientation, socioeconomic and, the values, beliefs, symbolic practices of others. The absence or presence of inclusive language affects the tone of the messagethe writer's, speaker's, or knowledge worker's voice and, perhaps, persona. Related Concepts: Audience; Diction;...

    Published on Apr 13th 2012

  93. Infographics

    Most simply, infographics are graphical stories. More specifically,iInfographics are a genre of discourse that relies primarily on visual language rather than alphabetical language to convey a messagea visual representation of information, typically quantitative data but at times qualitative data, that tells a single story or argument in a visually appealing and interesting way clarifies and highlights logical relationships, trends, patterns...

    Published on Apr 03rd 2020

  94. Information Creation as a Process

    Information Creation as a Process Framework is an Framework as conceptualized by the Association of College and Research Libraries. How information is developed and presented reflects how well developed the information is as well as how it is likely to be used. Discussion forums, tweets, podcasts, blogs, animations, white papers, peer-reviewed publications--the genres and media used to develop and disseminate...

    Published on Aug 07th 2019

  95. Information Design

    Information Design is a process—the act of designing information in order to facilitate clarity and interpretation.a subject of academic studyconventions, discourse patternsOrganizational SchemaParagraph SchemasRhetorical MovesSentence SchemasTransitional Language, Metalanguage, Sequesa set of interoperability standards that enable sharing of information across hardware platforms, software, and coding languages. Related Concepts: Design Thinking; Rhetorical Analysis; Rhetorical Moves; Rhetorical Reasoning

    Published on Nov 17th 2020

  96. Information Has Value

    Information is a commodity. It has value. So, if you publish personal information via Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter, you should understand those companies are benefiting financially from your disclosures.if you are a scholar who spent three years researching a book, you might be unhappy if someone lifts your story line and sells it as an action movie.if you are a...

    Published on Aug 07th 2019

  97. Information Literacy

    What is Information Literacy? Information Literacy may be conceptualized as a competency, the ability to recognize "when information is needed and have the ability to locate, evaluate and use the needed information" (American Library Association, 1989)"a cluster of interconnected core activities, frameworks" that constitute information ecosystems (ACRL 2015)a subject of studyConsuming, evaluating, producing, managing, using, and archiving information--these are topics...

    Published on Sep 24th 2019

  98. Information, Data

    What is Information? Information is everything your senses perceive, including visual, auditory, or kinesthetic data.a subject of study (aka Information Sciences, Information Studies). Related Concepts: Archive; Canon; Communication; Literacy; Semiotics Why Does Information Matter? As human beings, we perceive information through our senses. Moment by moment, we are bombarded with stimuli: visual, auditory, or kinesthetic data. As symbol makers, as...

    Published on Mar 08th 2020

  99. Instructions & Process Reports

    "How is this done? How can I do this?"-- These questions guide authors as they describe processes. Learn how to write instructions and processes so that readers know how to do something or understand how something is done. By viewing sample process texts, note the focus on the objective voice, numbered steps, visual rhetoric, and clever animations or video. Write...

    Published on Oct 21st 2009

  100. Instructions & Processes

    "How is this done? How can I do this?"-- These questions guide authors as they describe processes. Learn how to write instructions and processes so that readers know how to do something or understand how something is done. By viewing sample process texts, note the focus on the objective voice, numbered steps, visual rhetoric, and clever animations or video. Write...

    Published on Oct 01st 2019

  101. Intellectual Property

    Intellectual Property (IP) refers to a document or ideas owned by authors, publishers, and corporations. IP is anything that reflects an original thought that is written down or expressed in any medium. Simply put, what you create is your "intellectual property." Graphics, songs, poems, pictures, and essays are examples of properties that are owned by their creators properties that are...

    Published on Oct 21st 2009

  102. Interpretation, Interpretative Frameworks

    What is Interpretation? Interpretation is the act of literacy, the human process of making inferences, of ascribing meaning to signs and symbols, the act of signification. People make interpretations of texts and events in order to make sense of world. Interpretation is a deeply subjective process. Different people can see the exact same event and infer contrasting interpretations. Critics often...

    Published on Aug 18th 2021

  103. Invention

    What is Invention? Invention is the act of creation, the Eureka momentWriters, artists, product designers . . . create new knowledge and original stories. They engage in textual research, empirical research, and customer discovery research to explore theses, hypotheses, and research questions. Writers gain new insights into ongoing scholarly conversations and narrative traditions. one of the five canons of rhetoric...

    Published on Sep 24th 2019

  104. Journaling: Writer’s Journal

    Understand how writers organize their commitments by organizing work under development into a notebook. Although the thought of maintaining a notebook may at first appear intimidating, you will probably be surprised to find that it is actually quite easy to keep one on a day-to-day basis. Indeed, the following comments are fairly representative of how most students feel after keeping...

    Published on Oct 31st 2009

  105. Journalistic Questions

    Question     Who? Who is doing this? Who will do this? What? What did they do? What was it for? Where? Where did they do it? Where is it going to happen? Why? Why are they doing this? Why are they doing it? When? When is it happening? When is it going to happen? How? How did they do...

    Published on Nov 11th 2009

  106. Leadership

    Leadership refers to a person's ability to guide and inspire themselves as well as others to act. Writers, speakers, and knowledge workers engage in leadership when they plan activities and resources, resolve conflicts, and reorganize aims and works flows in response to challenges. Self Leadership Self-leadership refers to the dispositions and processes people employ to re-direct, self monitor and evaluate...

    Published on Aug 07th 2019

  107. Literacy

    Literacy is "the ability to identify, understand, interpret, create, communicate and compute" (UNESCO 2006)."the ability to use printed and written information to function in society, to achieve one's goals, and to develop one's knowledge and potential" (National Center for Education Statistics) "the ability to read and write in home, workplace, and community settings." (See World Bank, https://data.worldbank.org/data-catalog/ed-stats.) Strictly speaking, literacy...

    Published on Mar 07th 2020

  108. Local Perspective

    What is a Local Perspective? Local Perspective is a term used by teachers, editors, writers, and critics to refer to the practice of talking about a document or revising and editing a document at the word, phrase, clause, and sentence level. The local perspective is often contrasted to the global perspective, which refers to a writer, speaker, knowledge worker's efforts...

    Published on Dec 15th 2019

  109. Managing Group Projects

    Follow these tips for nurturing teamwork in group situations. Managing group projects is a learned skill and business leaders commonly complain that college graduate students have not learned how to work productively in groups. In American classrooms, we tend to prize individual accomplishment, yet in professional careers we need to work well with others.Unfortunately, the terms "group work," "team work,"...

    Published on Oct 31st 2009

  110. Mechanics

    What are Mechanics? Mechanics are the conventions or rules that govern written language, including CapitalizationParts of SpeechParts of a SentencePunctuationRun-on SentencesSentence FragmentsSentence ErrorsSentence PatternsSentence StructuresSpelling Mechanics are a socio-cultural-rhetorical construct. Mechanics evolve over time as communication technologies and discourse communities/communities of practice evolve. Related Concepts: Grammar; Register Why Do Mechanics Matter? Mechanics enable writers, speakers, and knowledge makers . ....

    Published on Sep 10th 2019

  111. Mindset

    Mindset Definition Mindsets are ways of perceiving and acting in the world. The mindsets we hold, consciously or subconsciously, shape how we feel, think, and actour sense of identity and belongingwhat we believe is possible. Mindsets are a mental framework, a habitual way of thinking and feeling about something that informs how someone perceives, interprets, researches, develops, and tests information...

    Published on Jul 24th 2019

  112. Mix Quotes with Paraphrasing

    As with most other skills, practice is the best way to become effective at paraphrasing. Also, you may need to write several drafts before developing one that accurately reports the author's intentions in your own words. Note also that if you cite three or more words from the original or even one word that was coined by the author, you...

    Published on May 25th 2011

  113. MLA Citation – MLA In Text Citation

    What is MLA Citation? MLA Citation refers to the guidelines for citing sources according to the MLA Handbook, 9th Edition. MLA refers to the Modern Language Association, an international organization that informs the discourse practices of teachers, scholars, and students in the humanitiesThe 9th Edition is the current, official handbook of the MLA. MLA Citation Format provides writers with two major ways to attribute sources: in the actual text using a parenthetical...

    Published on Apr 29th 2022

  114. MLA Format

    What is MLA Format? MLA Format refers to the formatting guidelines published by the MLA (Modern Language Association) for writers of research papers (see MLA Handbook, 9th Edition). Related Concepts: Annotated Bibliography; Intellectual Property; Page Design; Plagiarism MLA Font Select a readable font such as Times New Roman, and an easily legible font size (usually 10- to 12-point font). MLA...

    Published on Apr 28th 2022

  115. MLA Works Cited

    What is MLA Works Cited? MLA Works Cited refers to the MLA's (Modern Language Association's) guidelines for formatting a list of references at the end of a text that cites sources. The MLA Handbook, 9th Edition requires authors to provide a list of references — aka a works cited page — at the end of their texts to acknowledge the...

    Published on May 01st 2022

  116. Narration

    Organize according to time. Reveal the logical or chronological steps one conducts to complete something or the cause-and-effect relationship between events. Writers frequently use chronological order or reverse chronological order to organize a document. Narratives, resumes, family histories, historical narratives, process reports--these common genres typically employ a narrative order. In college and your career, you will write two kinds of narratives:...

    Published on Nov 01st 2009

  117. Nominalizations

    In English, a nominalization refers to the grammatical construct whereby a verb, adjective, or adverb functions as a noun. Examples: Noun/Nominalization Verb, adjective, or adverb ActionActAdministrationAdministerCessationCeaseInventionInventexplorationexplorejustificationjustify To avoid nominalizations, make sure to use more action verbs in your sentences. To do this, you should: Find the nouns in the sentence.Look for a verb form of that noun.Try to reduce the...

    Published on Jan 31st 2020

  118. OER Webinar: Save the Date 2/28/12, 12:00 p.m. EST

    Please join Writing Commons and the Open College Textbook Community for a Webinar on Open Education Resources. Host: Una DalyDate/Time:  2/28/2012 at 12:00 p.m.  Joe Moxley, (who directs First-Year Composition Program at the University of South Florida, which was awarded the 2011/12 Certificate of Excellence by NCTE) founder and "Chief Executive of Openness," on the mission of Writing Commons Karen Langbehn, Social...

    Published on Jan 29th 2012

  119. Opinion

    What is Opinion? Opinion is a type of evidence an interpretive lensa subjective, potentially subconscious process that is a way of seeing and not seeing, a prejudice that impinges on interpretation and reasoning. Key Concepts: Authority is Constructed & Contextual; Evidence; Information Literacy; Reasoning with Evidence; News or Opinion; What is RAD? – Replicable, Aggregable, Data-Supported Scholarship? Daniel Patrick Moynihan once quipped, rephrasing...

    Published on Apr 13th 2012

  120. Organization

    Organization Definition Organization refers to discourse conventions (aka commonplace organizational schema) associated with logical reasoning, modes of discourse, and genres Causal OrderChronological OrderDeductive Order, Deductive Reasoning, Deductive WritingGenres of Discourse: Argument; Proposal; Feasibility Study -- and so onGiven-to-New OrderGlobal PerspectiveInductive Order, Inductive Reasoning, Inductive WritingModes of DiscourseCauses & Effects, Classification, Comparison & Contrast, Definition, Description, Exemplification, Exposition, NarrationSpatial Orderassociated with...

    Published on Sep 24th 2019

  121. Overcome Discouragement

    Give yourself positive messages when revising, understanding it's easier to critique than to invent. Understandably, you can become discouraged during writing, particularly when undertaking a challenging project. Even so, you cannot give in to negative thinking. Six Tips to Avoid Being Discouraged Be realistic. Remember it's much easier to criticize than invent. Every manuscript can be critiqued, even ones authored...

    Published on Nov 01st 2009

  122. Page Design & Scannability

    What is Page Design? Page design refers to the design of information on a print or web page, especially the use negative and positive spacethe guidelines professional organizations (e.g., APA or MLA), teachers, funding agencies, and other audiences provide for submitted texts. Scannability refers to the ease with which a reader can scan a document and discern the gist of...

    Published on Nov 01st 2009

  123. Paraphrasing

    What Is Paraphrasing? Paraphrasing is the act of expressing someone else's ideas and words in your unique writing style and voice. Rather than just repeating what someone else said (i.e., quoting) or summarizing what someone said, paraphrasing is the act of using your own words to restate and cite someone else’s ideas and text. Paraphrasing does not mean simply changing...

    Published on Jan 18th 2020

  124. Parts of a Sentence

    Parts of a Sentence refers to the basic building blocks of Standard Written or Spoken English. Generally speaking, when subject matter experts use the term, Parts of a Sentence, they are referring to Subjects (S)Verbs (V) and, sometimes, 3. Objects (O), either Indirect Objects (IO) or Direct Objects (D0). Additionally, subject matter experts may referring to Independent Clauses, Dependent Clauses,...

    Published on Oct 22nd 2021

  125. Peer Review – Peer Reviewed

    What is Peer Review? Peer Review is the practice of giving and getting critiques (including formative and summative feedback) from others in order to improve something--such as a text, application, service.At work, managers are likely to review work before it goes out to clients and public scrutinyAt school, students review other students' workAt home, families and loved ones critique one...

    Published on Aug 07th 2019

  126. Play the Believing Game

    Writing, thinking, creating — these acts are bounded by two contrary processes: believing and doubting. For many student writers — for many people, in fact — being critical and judgmental can come easily. Hence, the truism "it's easier to critique them to create" (Alcott). Yet it is especially important, especially in the early stages of a writing project, for writers to...

    Published on Oct 05th 2010

  127. Play the Doubting Game

    While playing the believing game–setting aside doubt and overly critical comments–is crucial during the writing process, playing the doubting game is equally important, especially during the latter stages of the writing process.   Successful writing partially rests on being critical and reflective about your rhetorical situation, the quality of your evidence, and the best way to organize a document for reader....

    Published on Oct 05th 2010

  128. Primer Sentences

    How can short sentences be effectively combined? Use Coordinating Conjunctions Simple sentences about a single topic may also be combined by using coordinating conjunctions (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) and/or modifying clauses. Series of related sentences: Central Park is an urban park that is 843 acres. It is located in New York City. The park has several attractions...

    Published on Feb 08th 2020

  129. Principles of Design – Elements of Design

    What are the Principles of Design? Design Principles refers to conventions, artistic traditions, and theories that inform how artists, writers, speakers, knowledge workers . . . use design elements in their texts/compositions). Related Concepts: Design Thinking; Visual Language Why Do Principles of Design Matter? Design Principles inform reading and writing practices. They constitute a basic literacy competency for a knowledge...

    Published on Nov 12th 2020

  130. Problem Definition

    A Problem Definition is a genre of discourse that aims to describe a problem, including an analysis of its historical roots, causes and effects, stakeholders and disruptors.The Problem Definition may constitute an entire text or may be a smaller part of a larger text, such as a paragraph or even a whole section of a text. Key Terms: Concrete Language;...

    Published on Aug 23rd 2020

  131. Professional Writing – Professional Writing Prose Style

    What is Professional Writing? Professional Writing is a style of writing that writers, speakers, and knowledge workers use to communicate in professional, public, and workplace settings. For example, the discourse practices of engineers, accountants, lawyers, scientists, and doctors are all forms of Professional Writing. the title of a commonplace undergraduate course in the U.S. Typically, this course introduces students to...

    Published on Jul 27th 2020

  132. Pronoun – Guide to Writing with Pronouns

    If these sentences seem ok, that may be because you may hear people say them in everyday discourse. Still, from the standard of British or American English, the first three sentences contain a pronoun error. The fourth sentence, which until recently would have been considered an error, is correct. What Are Pronouns? Pronouns are words that substitute for other nouns. For...

    Published on Feb 14th 2020

  133. Pronouns and Inclusivity

    What are Gender Neutral Pronouns? People have been arguing about gender-neutral pronouns for over 700 years! The way we use pronouns—in particular the use of the traditionally plural pronouns they/them in reference to both males and females—has recently been a subject of intense debate. This furor over pronoun use feels very current, yet linguistic scholars trace this disagreement back at...

    Published on Apr 08th 2022

  134. Proofreading

    Proofreading is the act of re-reading a text, following revision and editing, with the goal of making final changes at the word and sentence level. Proofreading, like editing, embraces a critical perspective. When proofreading, whether they are proofreading their work or the work of others, copy editors analyze diction and tone, examining whether small word-level issues can soften or toughen...

    Published on Dec 28th 2012

  135. Proposals

    Learn how to improve your problem-solving and persuasive skills. Employ your writing and reasoning skills to make a difference in the world. View samples and write a proposal to conduct research, develop a Web site, solve a problem, or provide a service. Proposals are persuasive texts that articulate ways to solve a problem, conduct needed research, or provide a service....

    Published on Oct 21st 2009

  136. Provide Background Information About the Researcher’s Methods

    By definition, critical readers are skeptical. They do not take the results of research as the final word on the subject, but instead look for flaws in the reasoning; or if it is an empirical study, critical readers look for flaws in the research design. As a result, when you introduce an outside source, be sure to spend a moment...

    Published on May 25th 2011

  137. Provide Feedback in Group Situations

    Consider these suggestions when critiquing documents in group situations. Feedback in group situations provides an excellent opportunity to have your work read and evaluated by your peers. Rather than merely imagine how a potential audience might respond to your work, you can meet with classmates and discuss your ideas for writing projects or evaluate drafts. Ten Tips to Provide Feedback...

    Published on Oct 31st 2009

  138. Purpose

    What is Purpose? Purpose, from the context of Writing Studies, is the writer's, speaker's, knowledge worker's. . . reason for communicating.the reader's, listener's, user's . . . reason for reading a text. Synonyms Purpose is also known as Aim or Goal.Some people consider purpose and thesis to be synonymous terms. Others view purpose to be a broader classification of discourse...

    Published on Dec 31st 2019

  139. Questions to Evaluate the Authority of the Researcher’s Methods

    Here are some of the standard questions that academic readers ask when reviewing research reports: Is the source a first-hand or second-hand account? That is, are the authors reporting results of their own research or reviewing someone else's work? Is the source of publication credible? (For example, an essay in the New England Journal of Medicine would influence most physicians'...

    Published on May 25th 2011

  140. Quoting

    Quotes and Quotations are verbatim repetition of someone's words. Quotations are denoted via quotation marks. Quoting is the process of referencing someone else's ideas, words, and intellectual products. Quoting is a highly prized in communities of practice that place a value on reasoning from evidence and evidence-based-decision-making. Communities of Practice have distinct citation systems for citing quotes/quotations. Writers, speakers, knowledge...

    Published on Mar 02nd 2020

  141. Read Your Paper Aloud to Check Cohesiveness

    Why is it valuable for writers to read their own work aloud? Reading their own work aloud gives writers the opportunity to take on the role of the reader. When “writers as readers” add hearing to seeing, another of the five senses is put to work in the critical evaluation process. Words and ideas that seemed to flow smoothly and...

    Published on Apr 13th 2012

  142. Reader-Based Prose Style

    Reader-Based Prose Style is a style of writing that accounts for the emotions, knowledge, interests, and needs of the reader as opposed to the writer. Unlike writer-based prose, which is self-centered, reader-based prose is reader centered. Texts classified as reader-based prose use the genres, methodologies, methods, and media necessary to reach and engage the target audiencethe theses, research questions, hypotheses and...

    Published on Feb 22nd 2020

  143. Recommendation Reports

    Recommendation reports are texts that advise audiences about the best ways to solve a problem. Recommendation reports are a type of formal report that is widely used across disciplines and professions. Subject Matter Experts aim to make recommendations based on the best available theory, research and practice. Different disciplines and professions have different research methods for assessing knowledge claims and...

    Published on Aug 24th 2020

  144. Register

    What is Register? Register, in Linguistics, is the way a writer, speaker, knowledge worker . . . adjusts what they say (semantics) and how they say it (stylistics) to account for the occasion—their rhetorical situation. For instance, you are likely to adjust the level of formality you use in your speech and writing (e.g., diction, sentence structure, evidence) according to the...

    Published on Apr 16th 2021

  145. Relate Paragraphs Logically to the Previous Paragraph(s)

    Readers also expect paragraphs to relate to each other as well as to the overall purpose of a text. Establishing transitional sentences for paragraphs can be one of the most difficult challenges you face as a writer because you need to guide the reader with a light hand. When you are too blatant about your transitions, your readers may feel...

    Published on May 09th 2011

  146. Research

    Research Definition Research is the pursuit of knowledge to advance one's knowledge about a topic to replicate, vet, and potentially extend previous knowledge claimsto develop new knowledge for humankindto create new businesses, new applications. This desire to advance human knowledge is sometimes categorized as either basic or applied. Writers, speakers, knowledge workers engage in research to learn about the scholarly conversations on a topic, to...

    Published on Mar 13th 2020

  147. Research as Inquiry

    Researchers are driven by a desire to solve personal, professional, and societal problems. These problems may be simple everyday problems like the best restaurant in town for Greek food or they may be major problems that require vast teams of researchers working in well funded labs. "The spectrum of inquiry ranges from asking simple questions that depend upon basic recapitulation...

    Published on Aug 07th 2019

  148. Research Methodology

    Research Methodology is the philosophical framework, the epistemology that informs a research project.an academic topic of study that explores the philosophy of research methods.Methodologists engage in scholarly conversations regarding the epistemological assumptions that inform qualitative, quantitative, mixed, and textual research methods.Methodologists are critical about how data is collected, measured, interpreted and used to contribute to knowledge or make a knowledge...

    Published on Apr 17th 2020

  149. Research Methods

    Research Methods are the tools and techniques (aka protocols, processes, strategies) that investigators and methodological communities use to conduct research. Research methods may be empirical (aka the scientific method), informal, or textual. Key Terms: Methodological Community; Research Methodology If you are doing more than writing an essay that relies on sources, then you can benefit from understanding why there are...

    Published on Aug 07th 2019

  150. Research Protocol*

    A Research Protocol is a brief summary of planned research. Investigators use Research Protocols to plan research and identify obstacles (e.g., coordinate research work on large teams)to communicate with other investigators in order to coordinate work or receive critical feedbackto receive approval to conduct Human Subjects Research or Animal Researchto enable subsequent investigators to perform follow-up studies. *Alternative Title(s): Research...

    Published on Apr 17th 2020

  151. Research Question

    What is a Research Question? The Research Question is the question the author is exploring. Related Concepts: Organizational Schema Research Question A research question is a guiding question that an author uses to guide his or her research while gathering information for a project. Research questions typically appear in an annotated bibliography or other summary of a writer’s research. Generally,...

    Published on Feb 10th 2020

  152. Reviews and Recommendations

    Learn to write convincing evaluations and improve your critical thinking abilities. Evaluate a performance (such as a movie, speech, or play), a visual (such as an ad or artwork), or a text (such as a Web site). Read exemplary evaluative texts, define appropriate assessment criteria, and write a convincing and well-researched evaluation. Reviews present an author's opinion or interpretation. Writing...

    Published on Oct 21st 2009

  153. Reviews and Recommendations*

    Learn to write convincing evaluations and improve your critical thinking abilities. Evaluate a performance (such as a movie, speech, or play), a visual (such as an ad or artwork), or a text (such as a Web site). Read exemplary evaluative texts, define appropriate assessment criteria, and write a convincing and well-researched evaluation. Reviews present an author's opinion or interpretation. Writing...

    Published on Jun 26th 2014

  154. Revise for Thesis or Research Question

    First, make sure that the paper actually has a thesis that predicts what the rest of the paragraphs will be about. Once your thesis is clear, read each paragraph; this would be an ideal time to consider topic sentences (those sentences that control the focus of the paragraph) and ask yourself if those points are introduced or referenced in the...

    Published on Feb 20th 2020

  155. Revision

    What is Revision? Revision refers to the critical, cognitive processes and the creative, intuitive processes that writers employ when rereading a text and considering ways to rewrite it. Critical Processes Writers employ a cluster of core, interconnected cognitive competencies when they revise. Examples of the critical, cognitive processes that writers use when revising include identifying and eliminating vagueness, ambiguity, and...

    Published on Nov 17th 2019

  156. Revision Questions

    Understand the fundamentals of page and Web design; use visual language to convey meaning; use design to assert authority and organize work for readers. Writers use critical questions to find cracks and crannies, places where they need to develop or clarify their thinking. In their relentless pursuit of clearly expressed, well-developed ideas, they find soft spots—that is, passages that need...

    Published on Nov 01st 2009

  157. Revision Strategies – How to Revise

    What are Revision Strategies? Revision strategies are methods for revising documents from a strategic, critical perspective. Related Concepts: Academic Writing Prose Style; Editing; Proofreading; Revision; Rhetorical Analysis; Rhetorical Reasonings; Rhetorical Stance How to Revise Some exigencies require substantive revision whereas others require light revision. For instance, if you're engaged in peer-reviewed research, then you know the standard for publication is...

    Published on Nov 12th 2021

  158. Revision: Questions to Consider

    Writers use critical questions to find cracks and crannies, places where they need to develop or clarify their thinking. In their relentless pursuit of clearly expressed, well-developed ideas, they find soft spots—that is, passages that need to be developed or discarded and sections that just don't feel right—that feel mushy like cereal that has been sitting for too long in...

    Published on Jan 13th 2012

  159. Rhetoric

    Rhetoric Definition Rhetoric is an expansive term. It's used in different ways by different communities of practice. Rhetoric may refer to "the art, practice, and study of human communication" (Lunsford)"the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion" (Aristotle 350 B.C.E.).the study of situations, the study of how relationships among authors, audiences, topics, technologies impinge on...

    Published on Aug 07th 2019

  160. Rhetorical Analysis

    Rhetorical Analysis is the practice of analyzing a rhetorical situationto understand human decision makingto guide efforts to communicate and composeto interpret the texts of others.a mode of reasoning that informs composing and interpretation.a heuristic, an invention practice, that helps writers go beyond their perspectives and consider the perspective of the audience the process undertaken to generate rhetorical knowledge.a method of...

    Published on May 03rd 2020

  161. Rhetorical Knowledge

    Rhetorical Knowledge is "the ability to analyze and act on understandings of audiences, purposes, and contexts in creating and comprehending texts" (CWPA 2011, hyperlinks added). Key Words: Epistemology; Rhetoric; Rhetorical Analysis; Rhetorical Situation Rhetorical Knowledge is one of the four core competencies gained from writing, according to The Council of Writing Program Administrators, The National Council of Teachers of English,...

    Published on May 01st 2020

  162. Rhetorical Modes

    Rhetorical Modes are whole texts that are categorized by the writer's purpose, such as classification, definition, description, exemplification, exposition, narration, problem definition. The embodiment of organizational schema and rhetorical reasoning.a paragraph or section of a text that is defined by the writer's aims. Rhetorical Modes may also be called the Modes of Discourse. How does one describe a rushing river?...

    Published on Nov 16th 2019

  163. Rhetorical Reasoning

    What is Rhetorical Reasoning? Rhetorical reasoning is an analytical process. Rhetorical reasoning, from the perspective of the writer or speaker, is the act of sorting through different rhetorical moves, and then deciding on a course of action, a rhetorical stance. Writers engage in rhetorical reasoning to determine the best way to respond to an exigency, a call for discourse. Acts...

    Published on Jan 02nd 2020

  164. Rhetorical Situation

    What is the Rhetorical Situation? The rhetorical situation refers to all of the things (aka contextual variables or elements of discourse) in a setting, place, or time that you need to consider when endeavoring to communicate with others. When writing, researching, and interpreting information, people analyze their rhetorical situation in order to determine whether what to say, how to say...

    Published on Aug 07th 2019

  165. Rhetorical Stance

    What is Rhetorical Stance? The Rhetorical Stance is a rhetorical theory proposed by Wayne Booth in 1963. Booth theorizes writers, speakers, knowledge workers . . . need to balance three rhetorical elements in order to communicate with clarity: "the available arguments about the subject itself, the interests and peculiarities of the audience, and the voice, the implied character, of the...

    Published on Jan 03rd 2020

  166. Rogerian Argument

    Solving Problems by Negotiating Differences  How many times have you been in an argument that you knew you couldn't win? Are you reluctant to change your mind about certain social, political, or personal issues? Do you have an unshakable faith in a particular religion or philosophy? For example, are you absolutely certain that abortion is immoral under all circumstances? Are...

    Published on Dec 17th 2010

  167. Run-on Sentences

    A run-on sentence is an error that occurs when two independent clauses are joined without any punctuation or conjunctions. These two clauses have been run into each other end-to-end without being linked grammatically, thus the term "run-on." What is a run-on sentence? A run-on (or fused) sentence consists of two or more independent clauses that have been joined without appropriate...

    Published on Mar 30th 2012

  168. Scheduling Writing

    Overcome procrastination by establishing an appropriate schedule. Schedules are extremely important to writers. Documents can almost always be improved with additional revisions, so some writers need deadlines, a line in the sand, to say "Enough is enough!" For writers who tend to procrastinate, schedules can provide an incentive to get started and keep writing. Tips for Establishing Effective Schedules The...

    Published on Oct 28th 2009

  169. Scholarship as a Conversation

    We are social animals. We learn from imitation and dialog. Hence, it's no surprise that people develop new ideas by talking with others or reading the works of other people. In its Information Literacy Framework, the Association of College and Research Libraries conceptualizes Scholarship as a Conversation as a robust process by which users consider multiple perspectives on a topic:...

    Published on Aug 07th 2019

  170. Search Dictionaries and Encyclopedias

    Use encyclopedias and dictionaries to research and develop a focused analysis about your question or topic. The first step in any writing project is determining a specific topic. To help narrow your topic, you may find it useful to gather some general background information. This process can help you locate some valuable sources to consult. To obtain a few essential...

    Published on Mar 05th 2010

  171. Search the Library Catalog

    Understand how to search for books, journals, government documents, and media that you can access through your college or university library. You can hunt for information on your topic by consulting the library catalog. In many modern libraries, the bulky file drawers containing 3 x 5-inch cards have been replaced by computer terminals. Regardless of how the information is stored,...

    Published on Mar 05th 2010

  172. Searching as a Strategic Exploration

    Read, read, read…Just like a carpenter who works as an apprentice and studies the master. William Faulkner The Association of Colleges and Research Libraries has wisely suggested that you apply strategy to your search for information. This is not surprising because without a strategy, a game plan, searching for information can feel aimless. Strategy foregrounds the importance of conscious consideration of...

    Published on Aug 07th 2019

  173. Seek Help from Librarians

    Consult librarians when in doubt about where to obtain information. Sometimes people are embarrassed about asking for help in using the library; they feel as if they should know how to use the library once they get into college. However, librarians are information technology specialists who are employed by colleges and universities to serve as research mentors. Information technologies are...

    Published on Mar 05th 2010

  174. Sentences

    Definition Sentences are a grammatical unit, involving a subject and a verb ora subject, verb, and objectthe basic building blocks of thought, the ways we encode and decode informationa signal, a sign, of education, literacy, professionalism, work ethic. Related Concepts: Edit for AWK(Awkward); Edit for Sentence Fragments; Edit for Parallelism; Edit for Run-On Sentences; Edit for Sentence Structure Why Do...

    Published on Feb 23rd 2020

  175. Simplicity

    Definition Simplicity is a judgment made by people (e.g., readers & users) about whether a text or design of a product or app is as simple as possible given the complexity of the topic and rhetorical situation. A writer, speaker, knowledge worker . . . is said to have achieved simplicity when readers, audiences, users . . . find their...

    Published on Nov 10th 2020

  176. Spelling

    Why does correct spelling matter? When a word is misspelled or is mistakenly substituted for a word with a meaning that is inconsistent with the ideas surrounding it, the inaccuracy can create confusion in the mind of the reader. The flow of the passage is temporarily interrupted; frequent spelling and meaning errors can compromise the credibility of the writer. How...

    Published on Apr 02nd 2012

  177. Style

    Style Definition - Overview Style in rhetoric and writing studies refers how a text, application, product is composed -- its composition or design -- as opposed to what it means or doesthe shape of content (Shahn 1992)For some artists and creatives, style and content are so interwoven that they cannot be considered separatelythe attributes of a text or texts that...

    Published on Sep 09th 2019

  178. Styles of Writing

    What are Styles of Writing? Like Types of Writing or Prose Styles, they are the linguistic and semantic conventions that characterize a writer's work or the work of multiple writers a subject of studyCorpus linguists engage in qualitative research and quantitative research regarding language use. Fiction writers study the work of other novelists and short story writers working in similar...

    Published on Jul 26th 2020

  179. Subject-Verb Agreement

    What Is Subject-Verb Agreement? Subject-verb agreement happens when the subject and verb of a clause agree in number. For the subject and verb to agree, a singular subject must take a singular verb, and a plural subject must take a plural verb. A verb denotes action, existence, or occurrence. A subject denotes the person or thing that performs the action,...

    Published on Jul 17th 2012

  180. Subject, Topic

    Colloquially, the terms Subject(s) as well as Topic(s) may be used interchangeably to mean what a message is about, the subject matter of a texta branch of knowledge; the categories dictionaries and encyclopedias use to sort information. However, in the discipline of Writing Studies and other academic settings, these terms may be differentiated from one another: the term Subject(s) may...

    Published on Aug 07th 2019

  181. Subjects & Concepts

    Understand why analytical and explanatory writing is one of the most important genres of writing in school and professional careers. Read a variety of analytical and explanatory reports, noting the diversity of audiences, purposes, contexts, media, voices, tone, and personas. Understand the defining characteristics of texts that analyze or explain concepts. Why Write About Subjects and Concepts? Writers within disciplines...

    Published on Dec 28th 2009

  182. Subordinating Conjunctions

    A subordinating conjunction connects an independent clause to a dependent (subordinate) clause: an independent clause is a sentence that is a complete thought and therefore can stand aloneExample: I survived the class.a dependent clause is an incomplete sentence, a fragment. It cannot express a complete thought. It cannot be punctuated as a sentence. Example: Although I survived the class. Key...

    Published on Feb 24th 2020

  183. Substantive Prose Style

    Substantive Prose is a style of academic and professional discourse. Prose that is characterized as substantive tends to be evidence basedevidence is provided for claimsevidence is sourcedinterestinginsightful. People who can produce substantive prose are thought leaders, knowledge workers, rhetorician, symbol analysts. Key Words: Inductive and Deductive Reasoning Substantive Prose tends to be grammatically correctuse an appropriate level of diction for...

    Published on Jan 13th 2020

  184. Summary

    Summaries tend to be interpretive. They give the author's critical evaluation of the source. Would your summary differ, for example, from the following summary of The Wizard of Oz? Transported to a surreal landscape, a young girl kills the first woman she meets and then teams up with three complete strangers to kill again. Like paraphrasing, summarizing involves reporting someone else's ideas...

    Published on May 25th 2011

  185. Survey Academic Research Communities

    Analyze research practices from a community perspective, and learn about the methodological assumptions of scholars, surveyors, scientists, formalists, clinicians, and ethnographers. Researchers in workplace and academic settings have diverse and sometimes opposing ways of researching and making knowledge claims. In general, researchers in the natural sciences tend to prefer positivistic methodologies and researchers in social and behavioral sciences have increasingly...

    Published on Oct 02nd 2010

  186. Teamwork

    Teamwork Definition Teamwork refers to an individual's ability to collaborate with others to accomplish tasks. Teamwork involves a variety of competencies, especially conflict resolution, goal setting, performance management, planning, and task coordination (Oliveri et al. 2017). For writers, speakers, knowledge workers, teamwork often involves a range of collaborative practices, including co authorship, peer review, and critique. Teamwork, along with leadership...

    Published on Nov 18th 2019

  187. The 9 Parts of Speech

    Parts of Speech refers to the different ways words can function in a sentence. There are 9 Parts of Speech in English: Parts of SpeechGrammatical Function1. Articles2. Adjectivesmodifies noun3. Adverbsa word used to modify verbs and verb phrases4. Conjunctionsjoins words5. Interjectionsuse of punctuation to denote emotions6. NounsNoun 7. Prepositionsshow relationship8. Pronounsword used to replace nouns9. Verbsdescribe action or state of...

    Published on Jan 31st 2020

  188. The Elements of Style

    What are The Elements of Style? The Elements of Style refers to the title of a popular book on grammar, punctuation, mechanics, and style authored initially by William Strunk: The Elements of Style (1918)prescriptive guidelines about how to avoid error and write well. Commonplace examples:The Elements of StyleStrunk & White (1920)Zinsser, W. (2006). On writing well (30th ed.). HarperCollins.Williams and Bizup. exhort...

    Published on Feb 12th 2020

  189. The Writing Log

    Rather than waiting for that illusive large block of time and rather than procrastinating until the last minute to begin researching and writing, you can ensure your success by using small blocks of time to accomplish your research and writing goals. There are serious disadvantages to binge writing as opposed to regular writing as research has demonstrated. First, binge writing...

    Published on Sep 10th 2014

  190. Timelines & Flow Charts

    Use visual brainstorming to develop and organize your ideas. In 1765, Joseph Priestly created the now commonplace timeline. Priestly's timeline depicted the lifespan of 2000 inventors whom he considered the "most distinguished in the annals of fame." In technical documents as well as magazine articles, timeline flow charts are exceedingly popular. Readers love chronological timelines, which graphically chart the emergence...

    Published on Oct 31st 2009

  191. Title

    Where is the paper’s title? Choose an original title for the paper Center the title Present the title in plain type Use standard capitalization in the title

    Published on Mar 30th 2012

  192. Topic Sentences & Paragraph Development

    A topic sentence summarizes the main idea or the purpose of a paragraph. In an essay, topic sentences serve an organizational purpose similar to a thesis statement but on a smaller scale; a topic sentence helps guide the organization of a single paragraph while a thesis statement guides the organization of the entire essay. A topic sentence may be placed...

    Published on Jun 29th 2012

  193. Tough, Sweet, & Stuffy Prose Styles

    What are Tough, Sweet & Stuffy Prose Styles? In 1966, Walker Gibson theorized "the way we write at any given moment can be seen as an adjustment or compromise among these three styles of identifying ourselves and defining our relation with others": The Tough Talker"The Tough Talker, in these terms, is a man dramatized as centrally concerned with himself --...

    Published on Nov 06th 2021

  194. Transitions – Transition Words – Transitional Phases

    What are Transitions? Transition Words? Transition Phrases? Transitions, Transition Words, Transitional Phases—these terms concern authors' efforts to design the flow of information in a text in ways that promote clarity, brevity, simplicity, flow, unity for readers, listeners, users. Accomplished writers understand interpretation is challenging. They understand readers can lose track of the big picture—the writer's purpose, thesis, research question. Thus, when revising and...

    Published on Nov 16th 2019

  195. Unity @ the Paragraph Level

    Readers can generally follow the logic of a discussion better when a paragraph is unified by a single purpose. Paragraphs that lack a central idea and that wander from subject to subject are apt to confuse readers, making them wonder what they should pay attention to and why. Paragraphs need to stay focused on one topic. A good way to...

    Published on May 09th 2011

  196. Using Databases: Periodical Indexes and Abstracts

    Search magazine articles, research reports, journal articles, and abstracts published in magazines, newspapers, and scholarly journals. Magazines, newspapers, and scholarly journals provide contemporary material that is often on very narrow topics. Magazines are written in a more popular style and aimed at a general audience. The term “journals” is used for scholarly research publications. Librarians use the term “periodicals” to...

    Published on Mar 05th 2010

  197. Vague Language

    What is Vague Language? Ambiguous Language? Vague Language (aka Ambiguous Language) is language that is abstract, undecipherable, underdeveloped, fragmenteda defining characteristic of weak writing and writer-based prose style. Examples of vague language are generalization, overgeneralizations—a sweeping statement about a group of people, things, topic.an excessive number of non-specific adjectives like good, bad, okay, pretty, happy, and sad, which give an...

    Published on Mar 01st 2020

  198. Verb-Tense Shift

    A verb-tense shift occurs when a writer changes tense within a single piece of writing. Tense is the term for what time frame verbs refer to. Standard American English has a number of tenses, each of which is a variation on past, present, or future. Any switching of tense within a sentence, paragraph, or longer piece of writing is a...

    Published on Feb 24th 2020

  199. Video

    Add video to enrich or supplant printed texts. New communication technologies enable authors to incorporate streaming multimedia into their webs. Writers may provide video to: Underscore the content of the print text, illustrating key concepts.  For example, an agency hoping to secure funds for hungry people could show video of their living conditions. Illustrate the content of the printed text. ...

    Published on Nov 01st 2009

  200. Visual Brainstorming

    Visual Brainstorming is the process of using elements of visual language to develop, organize, and communicate ideas.Visual language refers to a writers', speakers', knowledge workers' . . . use of design elements, design principles, design tools, and data visualization methods to draft ideas for a text. Examples of Visual Brainstorming include a writer's sketch of their plan for organizing a...

    Published on Oct 31st 2009

  201. What is Plagiarism?

    Plagiarism involves The theft of someone else's wordsThe theft of someone else's ideasThe failure to properly cite someone's ideas, either directly or in a paraphrase. Plagiarism can be deliberate or the result of carelessness. When incorporating outside sources, it’s important to be conscious of what constitutes plagiarism and to avoid plagiarizing material. Ignorance of plagiarism and intellectual property is a serious...

    Published on Feb 26th 2020

  202. When is the Active Voice Preferable to the Passive Voice?

    In general, you can make your writing more persuasive, clear, and concise by using the active voice rather than the passive voice. There are instances, however, when the passive voice is preferable to the active voice, as discussed below. What are the Active and Passive Voices? Essentially, a verb is active when its subject performs the action. A verb is...

    Published on Oct 31st 2009

  203. Why Should I Keep a Writer’s Log?

    Realize your creative potential and avoid procrastination by logging your work. You can be more productive and make writing less adverse if you write in brief daily sessions. By keeping a log of your writing efforts, you can: Motivate yourself. By tracking your accomplishments on a daily basis, you can develop a better sense of how research efforts and invention...

    Published on Oct 28th 2009

  204. Writer-Based Prose Style

    What is a Writer-Based Prose Style? Writer-Based Prose Style is a style of writing that is so personalized, so idiosyncratic, that readers cannot successfully interpret it. Discourse — aka a composition, prose, or texts — may be called writer-based when it lacks an organizational structure other than stream of consciousnessis more focused on the needs of the writer than the...

    Published on Feb 22nd 2020

  205. Writing Cover Letters

    When reading cover letters, the key benchmark I use is simple: Do I get to know both the person and the professional? As we read a cover letter, we should have a sense that no other candidate could have written this particular document in this particular way. Hence, we respect and honor the individual. In conversation, the term “cover letter”...

    Published on Oct 31st 2013

  206. Writing Process

    What is The Writing Process? The writing process refers to all of the work you do — such as Prewriting (aka planning); Drafting; Revising, or Editing — when you're trying to write and communicate with otherstheoretical models that attempt to exemplify how people write. Synonyms In Writing Studies, the writing process may also be referred to as the composing process....

    Published on Mar 12th 2020

  207. Writing Studies

    What is Writing Studies? Writing Studies is the study of writing, especially composing, composing processes, rhetoric, and writing pedagogyan interdisciplinary academic field that boasts undergraduate writing departments, master's degrees, and doctoral degrees at many U.S. institutions. Synonymous Terms: Writing Studies is a broad, nascent term that may be used interchangeably with Rhetoric & Composition, Rhetoric, Rhetorical Studies Semiotics or Composition...

    Published on Sep 28th 2019