Joseph M. Moxley

Founder, Writing Commons
https://www.linkedin.com/in/joemoxley/
Writing Commons LLC



Joseph M. Moxley (aka Joe) is a professor of English @ USF.

Professor Moxley has published broadly on writing pedagogy; research methods (particularly ethnography); assessment; writing analytics; commons-based peer production; composition theory; datagogies; open education; legal writing; scholarly publishing; electronic theses and dissertations; learning communities; datagogies; and tools for writers.

Moxley's works have been translated in Chinese, French, Spanish, and Greek.

Awards

  • Distinguished Book Award for College Writing Online. Computers and Composition. 2004
  • Teaching and Learning Innovator Award for My Reviewers. Campus Technology. 2016
  • Microsoft Scholar Award ($100,000). Microsoft Corporation. 2000
  • Writing Program Certificate of Excellence Award. College Composition and Communication & NCTE, 2011/2012
  • USF Excellence in Undergraduate Teaching Award, 1996
  • USF Excellence in Undergraduate Teaching Award, 1993
  • USF Excellence in Undergraduate Teaching Award, 1990

Books

  1. Moxley, J. & Yirinec, J. (Eds.). (2013). Network, Collaborate, and Compose: College Writing in the Digital Age.  Tampa, FL
  2. Vieregge, Q., Stedman, K., Mitchell, T., & Moxley, J. (2012). Agency in the Age of Peer Production. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
  3. Fox. E., Moxley, J., Feizabadi, S., & Weisser, C. (2004).  Electronic Theses and Dissertations. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
  4. Moxley, J. & Fox, E. (Eds.).  The Guide for Electronic Theses and Dissertations: 12/2001
    • Translated into French, Spanish, and Greek in 2000
  5. Moxley, J. (2003). College Writing Online. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
  6. Moxley, J. (2000). Web of Danger. Prescott, AZ: Saint Gaudens Press.
  7. Kirklighter, C. Vincent, C., & Moxley, J. (Eds.). (1997). Voices & Visions: Refiguring Ethnography in Composition. London: Heinemann.
  8. Moxley, J., & Taylor, T. (Eds.). (1997). Writing and Publishing for Academic Authors. 2nd ed. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
  9. Moxley, J. & Lenker, L.T. (Eds.). (1995). The Politics and Processes of Scholarship. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
  10. Moxley, J. (Ed.). (1994). Writing and Publishing for Academic Authors. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
  11. Moxley, J. (1994). Becoming an Academic Writer: A Modern Rhetoric. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath.
  12. Moxley, J. and Gale, F. (1993). Teaching Legal Writing: A Modern Rhetorical Approach. Chicago: American Bar Association.
  13. Gale, F. & Moxley, J. (1992). How to Write the Winning Brief. Chicago: American Bar Association.
  14. Moxley, J. Publish, Don’t Perish: The Scholar’s Guide to Academic Writing & Publishing. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1992. Print. Moxley, J. (1992). Publish, Don’t Perish: The Scholar’s Guide to Academic Writing & Publishing. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
  15. Moxley, J. (Ed.). (1989). Creative Writing in America: Theory and Pedagogy. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.

Translations

  • The Guide for Electronic Theses and Dissertations was translated in Greek, Spanish, French
  • Publish, Don’t Perish was translated by Greenwood in Chinese: Translated in Chinese in 2014: 成功發表論文,讓您獨占鰲頭 著 ...華樂絲語文顧

Grants

Moxley has been awarded over $1.5M in funding from NSF (National Science Foundation) and FIPSE (Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education).

Education

  • Ph.D., SUNY Buffalo, Measurement and Evaluation with a concentration in Writing Studies
  • MA, SUNY Buffalo, Creative Writing
  • BA, University of Utah, English
  • BA, University of Utah, Psychology

*Writing Commons is an independent effort from Professor Moxley's work as a professor of English at the University of South Florida (USF). Writing Commons is neither affiliated with nor endorsed by USF. Professor Moxley's work on this project has been approved by USF as an Outside Activity.
  1. 3/18/13 is a pretty huge day @Writing Commons Thanks to Duke MOOC

    In past blogs, I’ve chronicled the development of Writing Commons, the Open Education Home for Writers, with hopes that my experiences developing an Open Education Resource (OER) might be of interest to faculty across the disciplines.  I’ve argued that faculty might want to consider contributing to Writing Commons or other OERs that are peer-reviewed, that faculty might want to develop their own OERs and...

    Published on Mar 21st 2013

  2. A letter from the Founder of Writing Commons

    Dear Friends, Welcome to the new site design for Writing Commons, the open education home for writers. Our new design is not only more attractive and accessible thanks to the creative work of Alston Chapman, but it is also much better protected against hackers. Our new website was precipitated by a recent challenge we faced at Writing Commons: between November...

    Published on Apr 15th 2016

  3. Academic Prose Style

    Academic Prose Style is a style of writing that is produced by students, professors, and investigators who belong to an academic discipline or a community that ascribes to the values of academe. A text that reflects an academic prose style is Research-basedAcademic writing tends to be grounded in textual and empirical evidence. Appeals to logos are privileged over appeals to...

    Published on Jul 26th 2020

  4. Active vs. Passive Voice

    Active and passive voices are two ways of describing how sentences create relationships between actors, actions, and objects of actions: Sentences in active voice put those elements in this order: Actor + Action + Object of Action. Sentences in passive voice put those elements in a different order, and sometimes even leave out the actor element: Object of Action +...

    Published on Feb 27th 2020

  5. Adopt Effective Writing Habits

    Summary Understand the psychology of writing, particularly the importance of balancing believing with doubting. Learn how to overcome "writer's block" and manage difficult writing assignments.When it comes to writing projects, do you tend to procrastinate and then binge-write around the deadline time? Do you ever have difficulties scheduling your writing work so that it doesn't become aversive? The following suggestions...

    Published on Oct 28th 2009

  6. Adoptions

    As discussed at About, Writing Commons aspires to provide the resources college students need to improve their writing, research, and critical thinking. That said, as a global resource, we do not wish to impose a single vision for writing pedagogy. As rhetoricians and compositionists, we embrace linguistic and pedagogical diversity.  We aspire to celebrate and interrogate context-based writing processes, genres, and methodologies....

    Published on Mar 12th 2013

  7. Annotated Bibliography

    Organize your research efforts and extend your thinking on a research topic by creating an annotated bibliography. An annotated bibliography is a list of reference sources and critical summaries/evaluations of the citations. Typically, researchers will: Provide the citation information for each source following the rules of a particular bibliography style (e.g., MLA Style, APA Style, Chicago Style). Logically, you want...

    Published on Mar 20th 2010

  8. Apostrophes

    Use an apostrophe to denote ownership to a singular or plural noun and indefinite pronoun by adding an -'s if the word doesn't end in -s. Of all forms of punctuation, the apostrophe appears to be in greatest peril of extinction. For proof that the apostrophe should be placed on an endangered species list in some grammarian's office, one needs...

    Published on Oct 31st 2009

  9. Applied Research, Basic Research

    Research efforts are sometimes categorized by the aim or motivation of the investigator. In the U.S., funding agencies such as NIH and NSF distinguish between applied research and basic (aka fundamental or pure) research in their RFPs, Request for Propoals: Applied ResearchThe research is conducted to solve a particular problem for specific situation.Basic ResearchThe research is conducted to advance knowledge...

    Published on Mar 29th 2020

  10. Archaism

    An archaism is an out-of-style word or phrase, such as “whilst,” “thusly,” or “thou.” Key Concepts: Diction When cultivating your own personal writing style, it’s important that you avoid sounding artificial. And one surefire way to sound artificial is to produce stilted writing by loading your text with old theatrical-sounding words. Here are some archaisms commonly found in student writing (ones to...

    Published on Mar 07th 2012

  11. Argument

    Support your arguments with reasoning, library and Internet research, and original research, including questionnaires, interviews, and ethnographies. Employ emotional, ethical, and logical appeals to sway readers' opinions. Arguments are persuasive texts. Writers make specific claims and support these claims with reasoning; library and Internet research; and original research, including questionnaires, interviews, and ethnographers. There are three main types: Classical/Traditional Rogerian Why...

    Published on Oct 21st 2009

  12. Argument

    Understand how to make and refute arguments. Learn how to analyze a Web site from a rhetorical perspective. Identify a place to publish your work online. Appeals to persona, appeals to emotions, and appeals to logic--these three appeals, as outlined by Aristotle and described below, are used with varying degrees of success and emphasis to persuade people. Persuasive arguments targeting...

    Published on Dec 28th 2009

  13. Articles

    English has three articles: a, an, and the. These little words are used to introduce certain nouns, but there are specific rules regarding the use of each one. When do I use an article? "A" is used before a general noun that has not been introduced to the reader. A cat walked by my door. (Note: I don't know this...

    Published on Feb 20th 2020

  14. Attribution, Citation, References

    Attribution refers to the act of citation--i.e., the act of identifying the original source for a summary, paraphrase, or quote.Citation refers to a reference to textual research. Synonyms include cite, citation, quote, quotation References, Works Cited, Bibliography refers to the bibliographical information authors provide so readers can follow up and read more about a subject. Bibliographical Information: the author names;...

    Published on Dec 15th 2019

  15. Audience

    Audience is the intended reader for a text. a discourse community "An audience is never wrong. An individual of it may be an imbecile, but a thousand imbeciles in the dark - that is critical genius." Billy Wilder To be an effective writer, you must use language that is reader-centered, not writer-centered. In other words, transcend your own perspective and consider the needs...

    Published on Aug 07th 2019

  16. Authority is Constructed & Contextual

    Authority is Constructed and Contextual, an Information Literacy Framework proposed by the Association of College and Research Libraries, highlights the rhetoricity of language practices: Authority is Constructed concerns ways an expert's research methods or personal and professional qualifications provides ethos.an expert engages in textual research to forage ideas across disciplines, debate/dispute/extend ideas, or develop knowledge claims over time.Authority is Contextual...

    Published on Aug 07th 2019

  17. Autobiography

    Who are you? How have your experiences shaped your sense of what is important or possible? Realize the benefits of using writing to reflect on your life. Read exemplary autobiographies and write about a significant, unusual, or dramatic event in your life. Autobiographies are stories that people write about themselves. These stories can be factual accounts of significant, unusual, or...

    Published on Oct 21st 2009

  18. Avoid Procrastination

    Avoid procrastination and gain some control over how you manage your time while developing documents. One of the most important lessons writers must learn is to handle the language of time. Judging from the multitude of books dedicated to time management--indeed whole forests have given way to time-managementspecialists--many of us have difficulties overcoming procrastination, knowing when to research, when to...

    Published on Oct 16th 2009

  19. Balance Believing with Doubting

    Just about everyone has moments of despair and doubt about their writing. After countless hours and the feeling that your work has been futile, that you have not clearly expressed an important concept or relationship, you may feel the urge to give up, to abandon the project. But you can't give up. To be a successful writer (or really, to...

    Published on May 20th 2011

  20. Best Search Tools for Royalty Free Images in 2021

    What are the Best Search Tools for Royalty Free Images in 2021? Searching for Royalty Free Images is a bit like a movie-version of the wild west: the scenery can be beautiful, but you better watch out for bad actors.  To find an appropriate image, you need to consider your rhetorical stance: What sort of images would your audience find appropriate given...

    Published on Sep 06th 2021

  21. Beware of “Oh, that makes sense”: Ethos in Context

    There is also, however, the credibility that comes from saying or writing something that the audience already believes or that reinforces the audience's experience. We should treat this kind of ethos with a healthy dose of suspicion. Just because something sounds right to you or makes you feel good about what you believe does not mean that it is true....

    Published on Apr 16th 2012

  22. Bias-Free Language

    Bias-free Language is language that is inclusive and respectful of others. Key Concepts: Audience; Diction; Rhetorical Analysis; Rhetorical Reasoning When writers use language that implies a biased or judgmental attitude, the audience may take offense. Sometimes, people's association with words, especially the connotation of words, is different from yours (see Diction). This can lead to unintentional bias. Language that is...

    Published on Apr 21st 2021

  23. Blogging

    What is blogging? How is blogging "academic"? Most importantly, why is my teacher asking me to blog? It’s likely that some, if not all, of these questions come to mind as your first-year composition professor introduces blogging as a form of academic writing. Yes, blogging can be academic. But how? More importantly, how is blogging a way of connecting lofty,...

    Published on May 16th 2012

  24. Brevity

    What is Brevity? Brevity is an aesthetic judgment made by a reader, audience, or user about the absence or presence of wordiness or unnecessary information/data in a text. Not surprisingly — who isn't in a hurry these days? — brevity is a highly prized linguistic attribute. Along with simplicity and flow, coherence, unity, brevity is foundational to clarity, the ultimate...

    Published on Sep 10th 2019

  25. Brevity: Edit for Brevity

    Brevity, along with simplicity and flow, coherence, unity, is foundational to clarity, the ultimate goal of most rhetorical situations. A sentence should contain no unnecessary words, a paragraph no unnecessary sentences, for the same reason that a drawing should have no unnecessary lines and a machine no unnecessary parts. This requires not that the writer make all his sentences short, or that...

    Published on Apr 02nd 2012

  26. Burke’s Pentad

    Burke's Pentad is a critical, rhetorical perspective that is used both as a heuristic a tool of rhetorical analysis. The pentad consists of five variables—aka rhetorical constraints. Burke believed these contextual elements have affordances and constraints and that these elements and the relationships among these elements shape the writer's, speaker's, knowledge maker's composing processes: The actThe sceneThe agentThe agency or...

    Published on Oct 31st 2009

  27. Causes & Effects

    "Why are things like this? What is the effect, or result, of this?" and " What causes this?" These questions guide authors as they analyze or argue about causal relationships, such as "What is the effect of a college education on income?" Unlike explanations of processes, which follow a chronological order of events, cause and effect texts are deeply speculative...

    Published on Oct 21st 2009

  28. Charts, Figures, Graphs, Tables

    Charts and graphs are methods of data visualization: Tables plot data or information in rows and columnsCharts, Figures, and Graphs visually represent data or information. Common examples of charts include pie charts, bar charts, and line charts Key Concepts: Text & Intertextuality; Design Tables and graphs enable you to reach visual learners. When you select information for graphical representation, you...

    Published on Nov 01st 2009

  29. Choppy Writing

    Choppy writing uses short words and simplistic diction. short, primer-style sentences (i.e., sentences that don't connect to each other). How can I improve choppy writing? Connect some of your ideas together with conjunctions and/or segues. Make two short sentences into one longer one. Writing feels choppy when the sentences are very short, and the sentences do not connect to each...

    Published on Feb 27th 2020

  30. Clarity

    What is Clarity? Clarity is a subjective judgment made by a reader, audience, or user about whether a writer's, speaker's, knowledge worker's . . . text is comprehensible.A knowledge worker, writer, speaker is said to practice clarity when readers, audiences, find their texts easy to understand or use. a measure of readability based on sentence patterns, sentence structure, sentence type,...

    Published on Jan 31st 2020

  31. Classification

    Organize information into logical groups. As with describing, narrating, defining, and comparing, classifying is a component of all writing genres. Just as writers pause to describe ideas and events or define new concepts in most documents, they routinely classify information--that is, show or tell readers how information can be grouped into categories. Occasionally, an entire document focuses on explaining a...

    Published on Nov 01st 2009

  32. Cluster Diagrams & Spider Maps

    Use visual brainstorming to develop and organize your ideas. Cluster diagrams, spider maps, mind maps--these terms are used interchangeably to describe the practice of visually brainstorming about a topic. Modern readers love cluster diagrams and spider maps because they enable readers to discern your purpose and organization in a moment. When Is Clustering/Spider Mapping Useful? As depicted below, writers use...

    Published on Oct 31st 2009

  33. Code Switching

    What is Code Switching? Code switching is when a writer, speaker, knowledge worker . . . shifts from one language system to another or from one dialect to anotherchanges the register of the diction for a particular text in response to the audience and rhetorical situation Key Concepts: Audience; Communities of Practice; Jargon; Rhetorical Reasoning; How Can I Code Switch...

    Published on Apr 29th 2021

  34. Collaboration

    What is Collaboration? Collaboration is the act of interacting with others to do something. Acts of collaboration include: co-authoringworking with collaboration tools in distributed work and school contexts.working with teams (e.g., negotiating goals, roles, and work plans)resolving or managing conflictsgiving critical feedback to others in one-on-one situations and peer reviewscritiquing othersthe practice of listening to others in an open way...

    Published on Sep 18th 2019

  35. Collaboration Tools

    As you know, there has been a renaissance in collaboration tools over the past few decades. Collaboration tools are now ubiquitous. You can video conference with others on your cell phone, iWatch, personal computer. Large groups of people can work synchrouslly on tools such as wikis, Microsoft One Note, Google Docs. Below we list a few tools that commonplace collaboration....

    Published on Oct 02nd 2019

  36. Color, Color Theory

    What is Color? Color Theory? Color, from the perspective of Writing Studies, is a design element that can be used in texts/compositions for rhetorical purposes. Color is a semiotic system: users read color just as they read alphabetical texts. Color Theory is scholarship and research on color and its role in communication. An ongoing argument among theorists is whether or...

    Published on Nov 25th 2020

  37. Comparison & Contrast

    Define content by comparing and contrasting categories or classes of objects. Comparing and contrasting issues can be a powerful way to organize and understand knowledge. Typically, comparing and contrasting require you to define a class or category of objects and then define their similarities and differences. Comparing and contrasting are very natural processes, a strategy we employ in our everyday...

    Published on Nov 01st 2009

  38. Conjunctions

    Conjunctions are words that connect words, phrases, or clauses. IOWs, words that show relationships between ideas, across words, phrases, clauses, and sentences. a part of speech Key Concepts: Flow, Coherence, Unity; Grammar; Organization; Organizational Schema & Logical Reasoning; Parts of Speech; Sentences; Writer-Based vs. Reader-Based Prose Writers, speakers, knowledge workers . . . use conjunctions to aid coherence--especially to join...

    Published on Feb 14th 2020

  39. Consider Your Voice, Tone, and Persona

    Enhance the likelihood that readers will respond favorably to your document by projecting an effective voice, tone, and persona.Voice, Tone, and Persona are slippery terms/concepts. In some instances, these terms can be used interchangeably, yet important differences do exist. Tone When writers and English instructors talk about tone, they are typically referring to the author's stance toward his or her...

    Published on Nov 07th 2009

  40. Contrary to Arguments by Hardcore Open Education Advocates, Creative Commons NC ND is a Valid License for Academic Authors

    Various talented folks and communities (e.g., the Open Knowledge Foundation and QuestionCopyright.org) believe Creative Commons should retire its NC ND clauses.  Students for Free Culture argue the NC clause is “completely antithetical to free culture (it retains a commercial monopoly on the work).”   Timothy Vollmer  asserts the NC ND clauses should be renamed ““Commercial Rights Reserved” because this license fails to “provide for all of [these] freedoms: the...

    Published on Mar 21st 2013

  41. Coordinating Conjunctions

    Coordinating conjunctions are words that are used to join two sentences together. Example: I'm reading, and I'm writing. Key Concepts: Flow, Coherence, Unity; Grammar; Organization; Organizational Schema & Logical Reasoning; Parts of Speech; Sentences; Writer-Based vs. Reader-Based Prose Commas are used when two independent clauses are connected by coordinating conjunctions: Ex: She was tired, so she went home.She was tired...

    Published on Feb 24th 2020

  42. Copy

    What is Copy? Copy is language that accompanies a visual text, such as an infographic or information/data visualization Legends, captions, headers—these are samples of copy. The SEO (Search Engine Optimization) work that SEO copywriters do is a form of copy. Other examples of copy include snippets of language used in data/information visualizations, advertisements, and other visual documents. Copy is typically...

    Published on Nov 25th 2020

  43. Creating Flow via Repetition

    Writers enhance flow by repeating key words or phrases in a text to invoke recall and pathos. Repetition is key to improving a paragraph’s flow, connecting related ideas and keeping the reader on track. Still, there is a difference between obvious and boring repetition and intriguing and effective repetition. Consider this paragraph: My brother is older and he has always...

    Published on Jan 31st 2020

  44. Creative Writing

    What is Creative Writing? Creative Writing is a mega-genre.  It's a cluster of genres including poetry, fiction, drama, screenwriting, creative, memoir, and travel writing. Creative Writing tends to be expressive, imaginative, and literary. People read, watch and listen to creative writing for pleasure, entertainment and the pursuit of knowledge. Thanks to emerging technologies, new creative writing genres are emerging, such...

    Published on Oct 29th 2010

  45. Crisis Communication Plan

    Learning Objective Understand how to prepare a crisis communication plan. A rumor that the CEO is ill pulls down the stock price. A plant explosion kills several workers and requires evacuating residents on several surrounding city blocks. Risk management seeks to address these many risks, including prevention as well as liability, but emergency and crisis situations happen nevertheless. In addition,...

    Published on Jan 08th 2013

  46. Critical Literacy

    Critical literacy concerns critical readingis concerned with rhetorical analysis of power relationships. engages students in metacognition and self reflection about the Currency, Relevance, Authority, Accuracy, Purpose of knowledge claims.

    Published on Mar 10th 2020

  47. Critique

    Critique is the practice of giving feedback—positive, negative, and somewhere in betweenthe practice of assessing and grading texts. Related Concepts: Rhetorical Reasoning; Stye; The Doubting Game Critique may be directed at ourselves (self-critique) or others. Critique may happen individually or in teams. Critique may be substantive or shallow; focused on local, stylistic matters or global, rhetorical matters. Critique is a...

    Published on Aug 07th 2019

  48. Dashes

    A dash (—) is a punctuation mark used to set off an idea within a sentence and may be used alone or in pairs. Dashes interrupt a thought in a more dramatic way than a phrase enclosed in commas, but less theatrically than parentheses. To form a dash, type two hyphens—without a space before, after, or between them—and your word...

    Published on Sep 11th 2019

  49. Dashes and Parentheses

    Create emphasis and define terms by interrupting the flow of a sentence by using a dash; know when the dash must be used as opposed to the comma. Some stylists view the dash with great suspicion--the sort of suspicion that a man in the 1990s who wears a plaid leisure suit to work would arouse. Some people erroneously believe that...

    Published on Oct 31st 2009

  50. Deductive Order, Deductive Reasoning, Deductive Writing

    Deductive Order and Deductive Reasoning refer to the practice of reasoning and organizing information from general premises to the specifics that prove/disprove the premisefrom a theoretical model to observations that confirm/disconfirm the modelfrom abstractions to specifics. Deductive Writing is a style of prose wherein the rhetor presents a claim/thesis/hypothesis in introductory sentences/paragraphs and then uses subsequent paragraphs to explicate, question,...

    Published on Nov 01st 2009

  51. Demystify Research Methods

    Critique research myths that may be impairing your ability to locate, evaluate, and use information. If you are like most people, you have some definite ideas about what research is. You may envision a pale figure in a white lab coat bent over a microscope or a beaker of bubbling liquid. Perhaps you imagine this isolated and humorless figure engaged...

    Published on Oct 04th 2010

  52. Demystify Writing Misconceptions

    Learn the beliefs that empower successful academic authors. To become a competent, confident writer, you may find it useful to analyze your attitudes about writing. After all, your assumptions about how writers work can limit your imagination and the quality of your finished product. You can debunk a truckload of myths about writing by analyzing how you write, how your...

    Published on Oct 28th 2009

  53. Description

    Enable readers to visualize your message by appealing to the five senses and using specific details. Description is an important feature of all writing genres. Writers use description to support arguments and illustrate concepts and theories. They try to invoke mental pictures of a place so readers can imagine it in their minds. Occasionally writers organize an entire document according...

    Published on Nov 01st 2009

  54. Design

    What is Design? Design, most conventionally, is how something looks or works. More broadly, design is conceived of as an interdisciplinary field of study, a discourse community, subsuming the arts, engineering, sciences, and humanitiesa way of thinking, a method for developing applications, products, and servicesa semiotic process, a way to communicate with others, that visual languagea catechism, a set of...

    Published on Mar 04th 2020

  55. Design Elements

    Design Elements are the basic building blocks of communication, especially visual communication. Design Elements are graphical objects that writers, speakers, knowledge workers . . . use to create an app, instrument, composition, or text.Examples: Color, Copy, Line, Shape, Size, Space, Texture.a method of communication, a semiotic systema topic of study in the art community. Key Words: Design Principles; Information Visualization,...

    Published on Nov 10th 2020

  56. Design Thinking

    Design Thinking is a human-centered, empirical research method that employs user-centric methods (e.g., customer discovery interviews, focus groups, usability studies) to solve problems and develop products and applications that people want. People (e.g., founders, product managers, developers, engineers) engage in design thinking when they set aside their egos and endeavor to listen to consumers and stakeholders in a probleplans and...

    Published on Jan 09th 2021

  57. Despair in the Open Education World

    Thus far, 2013 has been a tough year for open-education advocates. As Flat World Knowledge promised at the tail-end of 2012, the publisher no longer provides a CC 3.0 NC SA version of its textbooks for students.  In response, Leslie Scott endeavored to defend the commons by crowd-sourcing an effort to harvest Flat World Knowledge’s catalog (see  “All I want for Christmas”)....

    Published on Mar 21st 2013

  58. Develop Effective Writing Habits

    Although individual writing processes are vastly different, composition scholarship provides evidence of patterns across disparate writing methodologies. This section identifies and explains some of the most notable patterns of successful compositionists. We suggest that successful compositionist practice some of the following strategies: Return, Revise, Risk, Reject. Researchers in the field of composition and rhetoric have uncovered important insights regarding effective...

    Published on Nov 11th 2009

  59. Diction

    What is Diction? Diction is the vocabulary, the words, used in a textthe accent, pronunciation, or speech-sound quality of a speaker Diction may also be referred to as Word Choice. Key Concepts: Register; Rhetorical Situation; Rhetorical Reasoning; Edit for Diction Why is Diction Important? What is the Role of Diction in Communication? Words matter. Diction (aka Word Choice) plays a...

    Published on Sep 10th 2019

  60. Digital Literacy

    Literacy practices are undergoing major transformations. Thanks to new writing spaces, today's college students are redefining reading, research, collaboration, writing, and publishing practices. In addition to altering writing processes, new writing spaces are stretching the boundaries of academic writing, creating new genres and new conventions for structuring texts. Everyone has an opportunity to be a Gutenberg or a Thomas Paine, to...

    Published on Oct 29th 2010

  61. Double-Entry Response Format

    The double-entry format is a useful technique to help you extend your thinking about a source or to critique an rhetor's text. One very effective technique for avoiding note-bound prose is to respond to powerful quotations in what  Ann Berthoff calls the double-entry notebook form. The double-entry form shows the direct quotation on the left side of the page and...

    Published on Mar 20th 2010

  62. Edit for AWK (Awkward)

    AWK (Awkward) is an abbreviation some teachers and copy editors use to tell writers that they they find a sentence or phrase to be confusing. AWK, for Awkward, is shorthand: it's an informal way for a reviewer (see Critique) to provide critical feedback. Experienced writers use AWK to reference a number of problems, including Ambiguous pronouns Clarify who or what...

    Published on Jan 31st 2020

  63. Edit for Clarity

    What is Edit for Clarity? Editing for Clarity is an exercise in audience awareness and The Elements of Style. Related Concepts: Rhetorical Analysis; Rhetorical Reasoning; Reasoning with Evidence; Simplicity Editing @ the Micro and Macro Levels Writers, speakers, and knowledge workers . . . edit for clarity at the micro and macro levels: At the macro level, Editing for Clarity...

    Published on Apr 25th 2021

  64. Edit for Diction

    A diction problem happens when you use a word in the wrong context or use a word that does not mean what you intended it to mean in that situation. Key Concepts: Register; Rhetorical Reasoning Writers, speakers, knowledge workers . . . are wise to engage in self critique of their writing. It's particularly important for writers to consider the...

    Published on Apr 13th 2012

  65. Edit for Flow, Coherence, Unity

    Readers expect your ideas to flow easily from one thought to the next logical thought. You make this process easier for them when you connect the ideas in the current sentence to something you mentioned in the previous sentence—and it’s even better when you stick to one idea per paragraph. Yes, you can branch out and add other ideas/concepts, but...

    Published on Apr 25th 2021

  66. Edit for Modification Errors

    Dangling, misplaced, limiting, and squinting modifiers are common sentence-level errors. Dangling Modifers 1. To check if you have a dangling modifier, read the opening phrase of your sentence. Check to see if it goes with the subject of the sentence. If it doesn't, you have a dangling modifier. Ex: Sprinkled with coriander, kids love these potatoes.Opening phrase of the sentence:...

    Published on Feb 24th 2020

  67. Edit for Point of View

    To identify ineffective uses of point of view, 1) identify the various points of view in your writing; and 2) decide if the points of view achieve their purpose and will not inadvertently alienate the reader. 1. Identify the various points of view in a piece of writing. Ex: The American public is underinformed about important news from other countries....

    Published on Feb 20th 2020

  68. Edit for Pronoun Agreement

    To successfully edit your usage of pronouns in a document, you first may find it useful to review our article on Pronouns. Subsequently, below is an outline of different ways you can read your document to check for pronoun problems. How can vague pronoun references be clarified? Search the document for the words it, this, which, and that, and circle...

    Published on Feb 20th 2020

  69. Edit for Sentence Structure

    Editing for Sentence Structure involves examining the grammatical structure of your sentences. Before engaging in the exercise below, be sure to read Sentences, Sentence Structure. How do I Edit my texts at the Sentence Level? Sentence Patterns are groups sentences that share similar grammatical structures. Consider Your Audience When assessing whether your sentences are too long or complex, consider your...

    Published on Oct 31st 2009

  70. Edit for Subject-Verb Agreement

    A subject-verb agreement is a major faux pas, a stylistic infelicity. Your readers may question your education and professionalism when your texts are undermined by subject-verb agreement problems. Before submitting your work to your audience, it's always a good idea to double check that you understand how Subject Verb Agreement. There are two main options for revising subject-verb agreement issues:...

    Published on Feb 24th 2020

  71. Edit Paragraphs

    First, to edit your texts at the paragraph level, refresh your understanding about paragraph conventions. Check out these articles at Writing Commons: Paragraph Schemas Flow, Transitions, Coherence @ Paragraph LevelParagraph TransitionsSentence Order within ParagraphsTopic Sentences & Paragraph DevelopmentUnity @ the Paragraph Level Second, look individually and critically at each paragraph from the perspective of Paragraph UnityParagraph CoherenceParagraph Concision Evaluate Paragraph...

    Published on May 09th 2011

  72. Edit Primer Sentences

    How can short sentences be effectively combined? Use Coordinating Conjunctions Simple sentences about a single topic may also be combined by using coordinating conjunctions (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) and/or modifying clauses. Series of related sentences: Central Park is an urban park that is 843 acres. It is located in New York City. The park has several attractions...

    Published on Feb 08th 2020

  73. Edit Strings of Prepositional Phrases

    Eliminate choppy writing by avoiding unnecessary prepositions. When used in moderation, prepositions are invaluable: they work as connecting words, linking the object of the preposition to a word that appears earlier in the sentence. Like linking verbs, however, prepositions do not convey action, nor do they subordinate one thought to another. Instead, they merely link chunks of meaning that readers...

    Published on Oct 31st 2009

  74. Editing

    What is Editing? Editing is the act of critically reviewing your text word-by-word, sentence-by-sentence in order to make sure your text is as simple, brief, clear, informative, and persuasive as possibleensure your work adopts and appropriate style given your rhetorical situationevaluate whether your text expresses the style of writing (including, e.g., tone, voice, and personna) you wish to expressdouble-check past...

    Published on Dec 16th 2019

  75. Elements of Style

    What are The Elements of Style? The Elements of Style refers to the universe of signs, media, tools, and writing spaces writers, speakers, knowledge workers . . . empoloy when it comes to composing and interpreting texts. Related Concepts: Persona; Register; Styles of Writing; Tone; Voice What Elements of Style Should I Consider When Composing and Interpreting Texts? In order...

    Published on Feb 12th 2020

  76. Eliminate “to be” Verbs

    In our daily speech and in rough drafts, we tend to rely heavily on the various forms of the verb to be. The verb to be is unlike any other verb because it is inert--that is, it doesn't show any action. For example, in the sentence "The researcher is a professor at Duke" the verb is merely connects the subject with what grammarians...

    Published on Oct 31st 2009

  77. Establish a Comfortable Place to Write

    Ideally, you should find a quiet place where all your needed writing resources—such as a personal computer, dictionary, and paper—are set up. To help you focus on the work at hand, you may need a place that is reasonably free of distractions. Determine Your Most Energetic Time of Day "In fact I think the best regimen is to get up...

    Published on May 23rd 2011

  78. Ethnography

    Ethnography involves studying a specific culture or community. By living among the members of a culture and playing the role of participant-observer, ethnographers attempt to define the beliefs, rituals, symbols, problems, and patterns of behavior that distinguish this culture from other dominant cultures. The purpose of ethnography is not to generalize from a smaller population to a larger one. Instead,...

    Published on Mar 27th 2020

  79. Evidence

    What is Evidence? Evidence is information, data that a writer, speaker, knowledge maker . . . weaves into a text to substantiate a claima defining attribute of successful workplace and school-based writing see reader-based prose vs writer-based prose. Related Concepts: Claim; Information, Data; Information Literacy; Substantive Prose Style; Rhetorical Analysis; Rhetorical Reasoning When you think of the term evidence, what...

    Published on Oct 29th 2019

  80. Examples of Effective Summaries and Paraphrases (MLA Style)

    Sample Contextualizing for the Source Being Fluent with Information Technology explores why people need to understand and utilize information technology. Published by The National Academies in 1997, the book is written by the Committee on Information Technology and Literacy, including Lawrence Snyder, University of Washington, Chair; Alfred V. Aho, Lucent Technologies, Inc.; Marcia Linn, University of California at Berkeley; Arnold Packer,...

    Published on Mar 20th 2010

  81. Flow, Coherence, Unity

    What are Flow, Coherence, Unity? Flow, Coherence, Unity are stylistic terms used by writers, speakers, knowledge workers to describe how well a rhetor develops a single topic before moving on to a new topic how well a rhetor relates elements of discourse within a text (e.g., sentences or paragraphs) to other elements of discourse within the same text (i.e., other...

    Published on Sep 10th 2019

  82. Formatting Styles

    Understand conventions for citing information. Different academic disciplines and journals have unique formatting guidelines for citing sources and formatting research reports. Remarkably, there are hundreds of different formatting guidelines for referencing sources. This section briefly summarizes the most popular citation styles used in colleges and universities: 1. MLA Humanities professors commonly require citations to be formatted according to MLA (Modern...

    Published on Mar 20th 2010

  83. Genre

    What is Genre? Genre is a type of text, a type of composition, that shares a particular aim, style, organization, technique, or form. Genres are templates. They reflect commonplace ways of communicating in reoccurring rhetorical situations. For instance, alphabetical texts may be categorized as Expository Writing, Descriptive Writing, Persuasive Writing, or Narrative Writing. movies may be categorized as Action &...

    Published on Jul 24th 2019

  84. Government Publications

    Review research reports, pamphlets, or statistics published by the Government Printing Office (GPO). You may find it useful to discover whether the United States Government Printing Office (GPO) has published any research reports, pamphlets, or statistics on your subject. The GPO, along with the United Nations organizations, prints countless essays, pamphlets and research studies on the law, history, and such...

    Published on Mar 05th 2010

  85. Grammar

    What is Grammar? Grammar refers to the rules and conventions that inform how people use signs (e.g., body language, oral, written, and visual language) to communicate, includingmorphological rulesstructure & construction of words such as word roots, prefixes, and morphemesphonological rulessound, sound combinationssyntactical rulesword order, word combinationsan academic discipline, a field of studyGrammar is a topic of study across disciplines, including...

    Published on Sep 10th 2019

  86. Group Brainstorming & Online Conversations

    Use talk-and-then-write strategies to jump-start writing projects. Dialoguing, dictating, and group brainstorming all rely on talking to generate writing. Many people get their best ideas discussing issues and ideas with people. Lawyers, doctors, and business leaders have frequently used dictation to draft documents. Now, as a student, you can also dictate, thanks to voice recognition software. IBM Via Voice and Dragon,...

    Published on Oct 31st 2009

  87. Growth Mindset

    Growth Mindset refers to a personality construct theorized by Carol S. Dweck. People with a Growth Mindset assume traits such as intelligence and talent are a product of hard work, grit, determination. Have you ever heard anyone say or have you thought yourself, “I’m just not good at math,” or “I’m just not any good at writing?” Statements like these...

    Published on Nov 20th 2019

  88. Hierarchical Maps

    Use visual brainstorming to develop and organize your ideas. Like cluster/spider maps, hierarchical maps involve drawing a graphical representation of ideas. Unlike clustering, cluster/spider maps are chiefly concerned with analyzing relationships among ideas. When Are Hierarchical Maps Useful? Mapping is a useful organizing and revising tool when you want to see if you've made connections clear among ideas or if...

    Published on Oct 31st 2009

  89. Homonym Usage

    How might you choose a homonym that is spelled correctly and communicates your meaning accurately? Consult a dictionary or thesaurus: If you experience a niggling feeling that you haven’t used the correct word, consult a dictionary or thesaurus. Make cautious use of your computer’s word processor: Correct errors that are indicated by the grammar and spell check function. However, keep...

    Published on Apr 02nd 2012

  90. How Can You Determine Whether to Quote, Paraphrase, or Summarize?

    Summary: Learn how to introduce and correctly summarize, paraphrase, and cite sources. Clarify the research methods employed by your sources. Your instructors do not want to read miscellaneous quotations that are thrown together one after another. The problem with essays that use extensive direct quotations is that they tend to lack voice, continuity, or authority. If you offer quotations every few...

    Published on Mar 20th 2010

  91. Hyphens

    A hyphen (-) is used in the middle of a multi-word idea or joins two related words together. (The hyphen key is next to the +/= key on your keyboard (the same key with the underscore _ ) Use hyphens to join compound words and avoid awkward or confusing word combinations. A hyphen (-) is used in the middle of...

    Published on Sep 11th 2019

  92. Image Formats

    What are bitmap images? GIFs (Graphics Interchange Format) and JPEGs (Joint Photographic Experts Group) are bitmaps; they use pixels to display colors. In other words, bitmaps use a grid of squares, and each square, each pixel, can represent a color. Different computer monitors have different numbers of bits they can display for each pixel. A bit is the smallest amount...

    Published on Nov 01st 2009

  93. Infographics

    Most simply, infographics are graphical stories. More specifically,iInfographics are a genre of discourse that relies primarily on visual language rather than alphabetical language to convey a messagea visual representation of information, typically quantitative data but at times qualitative data, that tells a single story or argument in a visually appealing and interesting way clarifies and highlights logical relationships, trends, patterns...

    Published on Apr 03rd 2020

  94. Information Creation as a Process

    Information Creation as a Process Framework is an Framework as conceptualized by the Association of College and Research Libraries. How information is developed and presented reflects how well developed the information is as well as how it is likely to be used. Discussion forums, tweets, podcasts, blogs, animations, white papers, peer-reviewed publications--the genres and media used to develop and disseminate...

    Published on Aug 07th 2019

  95. Information Design

    Information Design is a process—the act of designing information in order to facilitate clarity and interpretation.a subject of academic studyconventions, discourse patternsOrganizational SchemaParagraph SchemasSentence SchemasTransitional Language, Metalanguage, Sequesa set of interoperability standards that enable sharing of information across hardware platforms, software, and coding languages. Related Concepts: Design Thinking; Rhetorical Analysis; Rhetorical Reasoning

    Published on Nov 17th 2020

  96. Information Has Value

    Information is a commodity. It has value. So, if you publish personal information via Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter, you should understand those companies are benefiting financially from your disclosures.if you are a scholar who spent three years researching a book, you might be unhappy if someone lifts your story line and sells it as an action movie.if you are a...

    Published on Aug 07th 2019

  97. Information Literacy

    What is Information Literacy? Most generally, Information Literacy refers to a cluster of competencies, including the ability to recognize when you need informationto understand the type of information you needto know how to search for information,to interpret information, and to know how to use and cite information. Most generally, Information Literacy is a critical perspective, a point of view, a...

    Published on Sep 24th 2019

  98. Information Literacy Perspectives & Practices

    Information Literacy Perspectives & Practices are critical points of view, theoretical lenses, that shape one's perceptions about consuming and producing information.core competencies associated with identifying, finding, evaluating, applying, and acknowledging information. Key Words: Information; Critical Literacy In SIFT (The Four Moves), Mike Caulfield blogs about four critical literary perspectives: Stop, Investigate, Find, Trace. StopInvestigate the Source Find trusted coverageTrace claims, quotes,...

    Published on Mar 06th 2020

  99. Information Literacy Tools

    At Writing Commons, we believe tools like Zoltero and RefWorks can simplify and professionalize citation practices. That said, we also understand these tools require a commitment on the part of the writer. Presently, we seek summaries, reviews, and critiques of Information Literacy Tools. Please see Contribute for details on our peer review processes.

    Published on Nov 10th 2019

  100. Instructions & Process Reports

    "How is this done? How can I do this?"-- These questions guide authors as they describe processes. Learn how to write instructions and processes so that readers know how to do something or understand how something is done. By viewing sample process texts, note the focus on the objective voice, numbered steps, visual rhetoric, and clever animations or video. Write...

    Published on Oct 21st 2009

  101. Instructions & Processes

    "How is this done? How can I do this?"-- These questions guide authors as they describe processes. Learn how to write instructions and processes so that readers know how to do something or understand how something is done. By viewing sample process texts, note the focus on the objective voice, numbered steps, visual rhetoric, and clever animations or video. Write...

    Published on Oct 01st 2019

  102. Intellectual Property

    Intellectual Property (IP) refers to a document or ideas owned by authors, publishers, and corporations. IP is anything that reflects an original thought that is written down or expressed in any medium. Simply put, what you create is your "intellectual property." Graphics, songs, poems, pictures, and essays are examples of properties that are owned by their creators properties that are...

    Published on Oct 21st 2009

  103. Interpretation, Interpretative Frameworks

    What is Interpretation? Interpretation is the act of literacy, the human process of making inferences, of ascribing meaning to signs and symbols, the act of signification. People make interpretations of texts and events in order to make sense of world. Interpretation is a deeply subjective process. Different people can see the exact same event and infer contrasting interpretations. Critics often...

    Published on Aug 18th 2021

  104. Invention

    What is Invention? Invention is the act of creation, the Eureka momentWriters, artists, product designers . . . create new knowledge. They engage in textual research, empirical research, and customer discovery research to explore theses, hypotheses, and research questions. Writers gain new insights into ongoing scholarly conversations and narrative traditions. one of the five canons of rhetoric (Invention, Arrangement, Style,...

    Published on Sep 24th 2019

  105. Journaling: Writer’s Journal

    Understand how writers organize their commitments by organizing work under development into a notebook. Although the thought of maintaining a notebook may at first appear intimidating, you will probably be surprised to find that it is actually quite easy to keep one on a day-to-day basis. Indeed, the following comments are fairly representative of how most students feel after keeping...

    Published on Oct 31st 2009

  106. Journalistic Questions

    Question     Who? Who is doing this? Who will do this? What? What did they do? What was it for? Where? Where did they do it? Where is it going to happen? Why? Why are they doing this? Why are they doing it? When? When is it happening? When is it going to happen? How? How did they do...

    Published on Nov 11th 2009

  107. Leadership (Self-Leadership & Team Leadership)

    Leadership refers to a person's ability to guide and inspire themselves as well as others to act. Learning leadership skills and styles are key to workplace success. Self-leadership refers to the dispositions and processes people employ to re-direct, self monitor and evaluate their own thoughts and actions. Self-leadership involves self-talk and self-coaching. Self-leadership may involve moderating one's emotions in response...

    Published on Aug 07th 2019

  108. Literacy

    Literacy is "the ability to identify, understand, interpret, create, communicate and compute" (UNESCO 2006)."the ability to use printed and written information to function in society, to achieve one's goals, and to develop one's knowledge and potential" (National Center for Education Statistics) "the ability to read and write in home, workplace, and community settings." (See World Bank, https://data.worldbank.org/data-catalog/ed-stats.) Strictly speaking, literacy...

    Published on Mar 07th 2020

  109. Managing Group Projects

    Follow these tips for nurturing teamwork in group situations. Managing group projects is a learned skill and business leaders commonly complain that college graduate students have not learned how to work productively in groups. In American classrooms, we tend to prize individual accomplishment, yet in professional careers we need to work well with others.Unfortunately, the terms "group work," "team work,"...

    Published on Oct 31st 2009

  110. Mechanics

    What are Mechanics? Mechanics are the conventions or rules that govern written language, including CapitalizationParts of SpeechParts of a SentencePunctuationRun-on SentencesSentence FragmentsSentence ErrorsSentence PatternsSentence StructuresSpelling Mechanics are a socio-cultural-rhetorical construct. Mechanics evolve over time as communication technologies and discourse communities/communities of practice evolve. Related Concepts: Grammar; Register Why Do Mechanics Matter? Mechanics enable writers, speakers, and knowledge makers . ....

    Published on Sep 10th 2019

  111. Mindset

    What is Mindset? Mindset, most broadly, is a mental framework, a habitual way of thinking and feeling about something that informs how someone perceives, interprets, researches, develops, and tests information and knowledge claims.the study of habits of mind (e.g., curiosity, openness, engagement, creativity, persistence, responsibility, flexibility and Self-Regulation & Metacognition). Key Concepts: Intrapersonal Competency, Soft Skills, People Skills, Disposition, Grit,...

    Published on Jul 24th 2019

  112. Mix Quotes with Paraphrasing

    As with most other skills, practice is the best way to become effective at paraphrasing. Also, you may need to write several drafts before developing one that accurately reports the author's intentions in your own words. Note also that if you cite three or more words from the original or even one word that was coined by the author, you...

    Published on May 25th 2011

  113. Narration

    Organize according to time. Reveal the logical or chronological steps one conducts to complete something or the cause-and-effect relationship between events. Writers frequently use chronological order or reverse chronological order to organize a document. Narratives, resumes, family histories, historical narratives, process reports--these common genres typically employ a narrative order. In college and your career, you will write two kinds of narratives:...

    Published on Nov 01st 2009

  114. Nominalizations

    In English, a nominalization refers to the grammatical construct whereby a verb, adjective, or adverb functions as a noun. Examples: Noun/Nominalization Verb, adjective, or adverb ActionActAdministrationAdministerCessationCeaseInventionInventexplorationexplorejustificationjustify To avoid nominalizations, make sure to use more action verbs in your sentences. To do this, you should: Find the nouns in the sentence.Look for a verb form of that noun.Try to reduce the...

    Published on Jan 31st 2020

  115. OER Webinar: Save the Date 2/28/12, 12:00 p.m. EST

    Please join Writing Commons and the Open College Textbook Community for a Webinar on Open Education Resources. Host: Una DalyDate/Time:  2/28/2012 at 12:00 p.m.  Joe Moxley, (who directs First-Year Composition Program at the University of South Florida, which was awarded the 2011/12 Certificate of Excellence by NCTE) founder and "Chief Executive of Openness," on the mission of Writing Commons Karen Langbehn, Social...

    Published on Jan 29th 2012

  116. Opinion

    What is Opinion? Opinion is a type of evidence an interpretive lensa subjective, potentially subconscious process that is a way of seeing and not seeing, a prejudice that impinges on interpretation and reasoning. Key Concepts: Authority is Constructed & Contextual; Evidence; Information Literacy; Reasoning with Evidence; News or Opinion; What is RAD? – Replicable, Aggregable, Data-Supported Scholarship? Daniel Patrick Moynihan once quipped, rephrasing...

    Published on Apr 13th 2012

  117. Organization

    What is Organization? Most broadly, organization is an informal gathering of people around a shared purpose or a legal entity, such as limited liability corporation or a business. From the perspective of a writer, speaker, knowledge maker . . ., organization is a rhetorical act. Writers . . . engage in rhetorical analysis to identify the best way to organize...

    Published on Sep 24th 2019

  118. Overcome Discouragement

    Give yourself positive messages when revising, understanding it's easier to critique than to invent. Understandably, you can become discouraged during writing, particularly when undertaking a challenging project. Even so, you cannot give in to negative thinking. Six Tips to Avoid Being Discouraged Be realistic. Remember it's much easier to criticize than invent. Every manuscript can be critiqued, even ones authored...

    Published on Nov 01st 2009

  119. Page Design

    Design pages to facilitate scanning by using headings, subheadings, columns; learn special page design considerations for the Web. You can enhance readability by giving some thought to the design of your documents. By using headers, lists, bullets, and other design elements, you can reveal your organization to the reader and emphasize key points. Below are page design guidelines you should...

    Published on Nov 01st 2009

  120. Paraphrasing

    Paraphrasing is the act of expressing someone else's ideas and words in your unique writing style and voice. Rather than just repeating what someone else said (i.e., quoting) or summarizing what someone said, paraphrasing is the act of using your own words to restate and cite someone else’s ideas and text. Paraphrasing does not mean simply changing a few of...

    Published on Jan 18th 2020

  121. Parts of a Sentence

    Parts of a Sentence (aka Sentence Parts) refers to the basic building blocks of sentences in Standard Written or Spoken English. Generally speaking, when subject matter experts use the term Parts of a Sentence, they are referring to Subjects (S)Verbs (V) and, sometimes, 3. Objects (O), either Indirect Objects (IO) or Direct Objects (D0). Additionally, subject matter experts may referring...

    Published on Oct 22nd 2021

  122. Parts of Speech

    What are Parts of Speech? Parts of Speech is a classification scheme developed by grammarians to account for the different ways words can function in a sentence. There are 8 Parts of Speech in English: Parts of SpeechGrammatical Function1. Adjectivemodifies noun2. Adverba word used to modify verbs and verb phrases3. Conjunctionjoins words4. Interjectionuse of punctuation to denote emotions5. Noun Noun...

    Published on Jan 31st 2020

  123. Play the Believing Game

    Writing, thinking, creating — these acts are bounded by two contrary processes: believing and doubting. For many student writers — for many people, in fact — being critical and judgmental can come easily. Hence, the truism "it's easier to critique them to create" (Alcott). Yet it is especially important, especially in the early stages of a writing project, for writers to...

    Published on Oct 05th 2010

  124. Play the Doubting Game

    While playing the believing game–setting aside doubt and overly critical comments–is crucial during the writing process, playing the doubting game is equally important, especially during the latter stages of the writing process.   Successful writing partially rests on being critical and reflective about your rhetorical situation, the quality of your evidence, and the best way to organize a document for reader....

    Published on Oct 05th 2010

  125. Problem Definition

    A Problem Definition is a genre of discourse that aims to describe a problem, including an analysis of its historical roots, causes and effects, stakeholders and disruptors.The Problem Definition may constitute an entire text or may be a smaller part of a larger text, such as a paragraph or even a whole section of a text. Key Terms: Problem Space,...

    Published on Aug 23rd 2020

  126. Professional Writing

    Professional Writing is a mega-genre. It's a basket of genres that are produced by writers, speakers, and knowledge makers . . . Examples of genres that might be called Professional Writing include business letters, reviews and recommendations, feasibility studies, progress reports, and application materials. Synonymous Terms: Professional Writing may also be called Technical Writing, Workplace Writing Related Concepts: Technical Writing...

    Published on Oct 29th 2010

  127. Professional Writing Prose Style

    What is a Professional Writing Prose Style? A Professional Writing Prose Style is a style of writing that typifies the texts of professional and technical writers. Writers, speakers, knowledge workers . . . are said to have a professional writing prose style when their texts are substantive, evidence basedreader-basedfactual, typically written in the third or second person point of viewinformed...

    Published on Jul 27th 2020

  128. Pronoun

    Pronouns are words that replace nouns. People use pronouns to avoid repeating the same noun over and over again (which can become cumbersome). Thus, pronouns allow for a more interesting and concise paper as long as pronouns and antecedents (i.e., the word pronoun refers to) agree in person, number, and gender. Pronouns are an important part of speech because you...

    Published on Feb 14th 2020

  129. Proofreading

    Proofreading is the act of re-reading your work, searching for issues, and making any last minute changes. Proofreading can focus on grammar issues like subject-verb agreement, mechanics issues like parallelism, punctuation issues like comma usage, or even style issues like word choice and tone.  Proofreading is a critical, but often neglected part of effective writing.  When we proofread a document,...

    Published on Dec 28th 2012

  130. Proposals

    Learn how to improve your problem-solving and persuasive skills. Employ your writing and reasoning skills to make a difference in the world. View samples and write a proposal to conduct research, develop a Web site, solve a problem, or provide a service. Proposals are persuasive texts that articulate ways to solve a problem, conduct needed research, or provide a service....

    Published on Oct 21st 2009

  131. Provide Background Information About the Researcher’s Methods

    By definition, critical readers are skeptical. They do not take the results of research as the final word on the subject, but instead look for flaws in the reasoning; or if it is an empirical study, critical readers look for flaws in the research design. As a result, when you introduce an outside source, be sure to spend a moment...

    Published on May 25th 2011

  132. Provide Feedback in Group Situations

    Consider these suggestions when critiquing documents in group situations. Feedback in group situations provides an excellent opportunity to have your work read and evaluated by your peers. Rather than merely imagine how a potential audience might respond to your work, you can meet with classmates and discuss your ideas for writing projects or evaluate drafts. Ten Tips to Provide Feedback...

    Published on Oct 31st 2009

  133. Purpose

    What is Purpose? Purpose, from the context of Writing Studies, is the writer's, speaker's, knowledge worker's. . . reason for communicating.the reader's, listener's, user's . . . reason for reading a text. Note: Purpose is also known as Aim or Goal.Some people consider purpose and thesis to be synonymous terms. Others view purpose to be a broader classification of discourse...

    Published on Dec 31st 2019

  134. Questions to Evaluate the Authority of the Researcher’s Methods

    Here are some of the standard questions that academic readers ask when reviewing research reports: Is the source a first-hand or second-hand account? That is, are the authors reporting results of their own research or reviewing someone else's work? Is the source of publication credible? (For example, an essay in the New England Journal of Medicine would influence most physicians'...

    Published on May 25th 2011

  135. Quoting

    Quotes and Quotations are verbatim repetition of someone's words. Quotations are denoted via quotation marks. Quoting is the process of referencing someone else's ideas, words, and intellectual products. Quoting is a highly prized in communities of practice that place a value on reasoning from evidence and evidence-based-decision-making. Communities of Practice have distinct citation systems for citing quotes/quotations. Writers, speakers, knowledge...

    Published on Mar 02nd 2020

  136. Read Your Paper Aloud to Check Cohesiveness

    Why is it valuable for writers to read their own work aloud? Reading their own work aloud gives writers the opportunity to take on the role of the reader. When “writers as readers” add hearing to seeing, another of the five senses is put to work in the critical evaluation process. Words and ideas that seemed to flow smoothly and...

    Published on Apr 13th 2012

  137. Reader-Based Prose Style

    Reader-Based Prose Style is a style of writing that accounts for the emotions, knowledge, interests, and needs of the reader as opposed to the writer. Unlike writer-based prose, which is self-centered, reader-based prose is reader centered. Texts classified as reader-based prose use the genres, methodologies, methods, and media necessary to reach and engage the target audiencethe theses, research questions, hypotheses and...

    Published on Feb 22nd 2020

  138. Recommendation Reports

    Recommendation reports are texts that advise audiences about the best ways to solve a problem. Recommendation reports are a type of formal report that is widely used across disciplines and professions. Subject Matter Experts aim to make recommendations based on the best available theory, research and practice. Different disciplines and professions have different research methods for assessing knowledge claims and...

    Published on Aug 24th 2020

  139. Reflect on Your Writing Processes

    Your writing processes, which may also be referred to as your composing processes, play a crucial role in determining whether your texts accomplish your desired purposes. Historians and philosophers are fond of saying that those who do not learn from history are doomed to repeat it. This observation is equally valid in regard to your development as a writer. Rather...

    Published on Oct 28th 2009

  140. Register

    What is Register? Register, in Linguistics, is the way a writer, speaker, knowledge worker . . . adjusts what they say (semantics) and how they say it (stylistics) to account for the occasion—their rhetorical situation. For instance, you are likely to adjust the level of formality you use in your speech and writing (e.g., diction, sentence structure, evidence) according to the...

    Published on Apr 16th 2021

  141. Relate Paragraphs Logically to the Previous Paragraph(s)

    Readers also expect paragraphs to relate to each other as well as to the overall purpose of a text. Establishing transitional sentences for paragraphs can be one of the most difficult challenges you face as a writer because you need to guide the reader with a light hand. When you are too blatant about your transitions, your readers may feel...

    Published on May 09th 2011

  142. Research

    What is Research? Research is a tool used to find evidence. Research is the pursuit of knowledge to advance one's knowledge about a topic to replicate, vet, and potentially extend previous knowledge claimsto develop new knowledge for humankindto create new businesses, new applications. This desire to advance human knowledge is sometimes categorized as either basic or applied. Research results—knowledge claims-—are...

    Published on Mar 13th 2020

  143. Research as Inquiry

    Researchers are driven by a desire to solve personal, professional, and societal problems. These problems may be simple everyday problems like the best restaurant in town for Greek food or they may be major problems that require vast teams of researchers working in well funded labs. "The spectrum of inquiry ranges from asking simple questions that depend upon basic recapitulation...

    Published on Aug 07th 2019

  144. Research Methodology

    Research Methodology is the philosophical framework, the epistemology that informs a research project.an academic topic of study that explores the philosophy of research methods.Methodologists engage in scholarly conversations regarding the epistemological assumptions that inform qualitative, quantitative, mixed, and textual research methods.Methodologists are critical about how data is collected, measured, interpreted and used to contribute to knowledge or make a knowledge...

    Published on Apr 17th 2020

  145. Research Methods

    Research Methods are the tools and techniques (aka protocols, processes, strategies) that investigators and methodological communities use to conduct research. Research methods may be empirical (aka the scientific method), informal, or textual. Key Terms: Methodological Community; Research Methodology If you are doing more than writing an essay that relies on sources, then you can benefit from understanding why there are...

    Published on Aug 07th 2019

  146. Research Protocol*

    A Research Protocol is a brief summary of planned research. Investigators use Research Protocols to plan research and identify obstacles (e.g., coordinate research work on large teams)to communicate with other investigators in order to coordinate work or receive critical feedbackto receive approval to conduct Human Subjects Research or Animal Researchto enable subsequent investigators to perform follow-up studies. *Alternative Title(s): Research...

    Published on Apr 17th 2020

  147. Research Question

    What is a Research Question? The Research Question is the question the author is exploring. Related Concepts: Organizational Schema Research Question A research question is a guiding question that an author uses to guide his or her research while gathering information for a project. Research questions typically appear in an annotated bibliography or other summary of a writer’s research. Generally,...

    Published on Feb 10th 2020

  148. Reviews and Recommendations

    Learn to write convincing evaluations and improve your critical thinking abilities. Evaluate a performance (such as a movie, speech, or play), a visual (such as an ad or artwork), or a text (such as a Web site). Read exemplary evaluative texts, define appropriate assessment criteria, and write a convincing and well-researched evaluation. Reviews present an author's opinion or interpretation. Writing...

    Published on Oct 21st 2009

  149. Reviews and Recommendations*

    Learn to write convincing evaluations and improve your critical thinking abilities. Evaluate a performance (such as a movie, speech, or play), a visual (such as an ad or artwork), or a text (such as a Web site). Read exemplary evaluative texts, define appropriate assessment criteria, and write a convincing and well-researched evaluation. Reviews present an author's opinion or interpretation. Writing...

    Published on Jun 26th 2014

  150. Revise for Thesis or Research Question

    First, make sure that the paper actually has a thesis that predicts what the rest of the paragraphs will be about. Once your thesis is clear, read each paragraph; this would be an ideal time to consider topic sentences (those sentences that control the focus of the paragraph) and ask yourself if those points are introduced or referenced in the...

    Published on Feb 20th 2020

  151. Revision

    What is Revision? Revision is sustained thinking about how to best communicate a message. Revision is an intellectual process that is fueled by critical thinking, the doubting game, explicit knowledge of Writing Studies, and a desire to craft a text that best represents the writer's intention and the user's needs and experiences. Writers, speakers, knowledge workers . . . engage...

    Published on Nov 17th 2019

  152. Revision Questions

    Understand the fundamentals of page and Web design; use visual language to convey meaning; use design to assert authority and organize work for readers. Writers use critical questions to find cracks and crannies, places where they need to develop or clarify their thinking. In their relentless pursuit of clearly expressed, well-developed ideas, they find soft spots—that is, passages that need...

    Published on Nov 01st 2009

  153. Revision: Questions to Consider

    Writers use critical questions to find cracks and crannies, places where they need to develop or clarify their thinking. In their relentless pursuit of clearly expressed, well-developed ideas, they find soft spots—that is, passages that need to be developed or discarded and sections that just don't feel right—that feel mushy like cereal that has been sitting for too long in...

    Published on Jan 13th 2012

  154. Rhetoric

    What is Rhetoric? Rhetoric is "the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion" (Aristotle 350 B.C.E.)a heuristic, a tool of invention, that people use to brainstorm about the exigency that drives the writing situation. a research methodology (aka rhetorical analysis) that analyzes compositions, texts. a theory of human interpretation and communicationan academic field that explores...

    Published on Aug 07th 2019

  155. Rhetorical Analysis

    Rhetorical Analysis is the practice of analyzing a rhetorical situationto understand human decision makingto guide efforts to communicate and composeto interpret the texts of others.a mode of reasoning that informs composing and interpretation.a heuristic, an invention practice, that helps writers go beyond their perspectives and consider the perspective of the audience the process undertaken to generate rhetorical knowledge.a method of...

    Published on May 03rd 2020

  156. Rhetorical Modes

    Rhetorical Modes are whole texts that are categorized by the writer's purpose, such as classification, definition, description, exemplification, exposition, narration, problem definition. The embodiment of organizational schema and rhetorical reasoning.a paragraph or section of a text that is defined by the writer's aims. *Alternative Title(s): Modes of Discourse How does one describe a rushing river? a hurricane? an earthquake? a...

    Published on Nov 16th 2019

  157. Rhetorical Reasoning

    What is Rhetorical Reasoning? Rhetorical reasoning is an analytical process. Rhetorical reasoning, from the perspective of the writer or speaker, is the act of sorting through different rhetorical moves, and then deciding on a course of action, a rhetorical stance. Writers engage in rhetorical reasoning to determine the best way to respond to an exigency, a call for discourse. Acts...

    Published on Jan 02nd 2020

  158. Rhetorical Situation

    What is the Rhetorical Situation? The rhetorical situation is the context, occasion, or setting for an act of communication. In order for writers, speakers, and knowledge workers . . . to decide whether or not they should respond to a call for discourse, an exigency, they need to understand their context, especially AudienceWhat do your readers know about the topic?...

    Published on Aug 07th 2019

  159. Rhetorical Stance

    What is Rhetorical Stance? The Rhetorical Stance is a rhetorical theory proposed by Wayne Booth in 1963. Booth theorizes writers, speakers, knowledge workers . . . need to balance three rhetorical elements in order to communicate with clarity: "the available arguments about the subject itself, the interests and peculiarities of the audience, and the voice, the implied character, of the...

    Published on Jan 03rd 2020

  160. Rogerian Argument

    Solving Problems by Negotiating Differences  How many times have you been in an argument that you knew you couldn't win? Are you reluctant to change your mind about certain social, political, or personal issues? Do you have an unshakable faith in a particular religion or philosophy? For example, are you absolutely certain that abortion is immoral under all circumstances? Are...

    Published on Dec 17th 2010

  161. Run-on Sentences

    A run-on sentence is an error that occurs when two independent clauses are joined without any punctuation or conjunctions. These two clauses have been run into each other end-to-end without being linked grammatically, thus the term "run-on." What is a run-on sentence? A run-on (or fused) sentence consists of two or more independent clauses that have been joined without appropriate...

    Published on Mar 30th 2012

  162. Scheduling Writing

    Overcome procrastination by establishing an appropriate schedule. Schedules are extremely important to writers. Documents can almost always be improved with additional revisions, so some writers need deadlines, a line in the sand, to say "Enough is enough!" For writers who tend to procrastinate, schedules can provide an incentive to get started and keep writing. Tips for Establishing Effective Schedules The...

    Published on Oct 28th 2009

  163. Scholarship as a Conversation

    We are social animals. We learn from imitation and dialog. Hence, it's no surprise that people develop new ideas by talking with others or reading the works of other people. In its Information Literacy Framework, the Association of College and Research Libraries conceptualizes Scholarship as a Conversation as a robust process by which users consider multiple perspectives on a topic:...

    Published on Aug 07th 2019

  164. Search Dictionaries and Encyclopedias

    Use encyclopedias and dictionaries to research and develop a focused analysis about your question or topic. The first step in any writing project is determining a specific topic. To help narrow your topic, you may find it useful to gather some general background information. This process can help you locate some valuable sources to consult. To obtain a few essential...

    Published on Mar 05th 2010

  165. Search the Library Catalog

    Understand how to search for books, journals, government documents, and media that you can access through your college or university library. You can hunt for information on your topic by consulting the library catalog. In many modern libraries, the bulky file drawers containing 3 x 5-inch cards have been replaced by computer terminals. Regardless of how the information is stored,...

    Published on Mar 05th 2010

  166. Searching as a Strategic Exploration

    Read, read, read…Just like a carpenter who works as an apprentice and studies the master. William Faulkner The Association of Colleges and Research Libraries has wisely suggested that you apply strategy to your search for information. This is not surprising because without a strategy, a game plan, searching for information can feel aimless. Strategy foregrounds the importance of conscious consideration of...

    Published on Aug 07th 2019

  167. Seek Help from Librarians

    Consult librarians when in doubt about where to obtain information. Sometimes people are embarrassed about asking for help in using the library; they feel as if they should know how to use the library once they get into college. However, librarians are information technology specialists who are employed by colleges and universities to serve as research mentors. Information technologies are...

    Published on Mar 05th 2010

  168. Simplicity

    What is Simplicity? Simplicity is a judgment made by people (e.g., readers & users) about whether a text or design of a product or app is as simple as possible given the complexity of the topic and rhetorical situation. A writer, speaker, knowledge worker . . . is said to have achieved simplicity when readers, audiences, users . . ....

    Published on Nov 10th 2020

  169. Spelling

    Why does correct spelling matter? When a word is misspelled or is mistakenly substituted for a word with a meaning that is inconsistent with the ideas surrounding it, the inaccuracy can create confusion in the mind of the reader. The flow of the passage is temporarily interrupted; frequent spelling and meaning errors can compromise the credibility of the writer. How...

    Published on Apr 02nd 2012

  170. Style

    What is Style? Style is the shape of content (Shahn 1992)For some compositionists and artists, style and content are so interwoven that they cannot be considered separately. the linguistic and semantic attributes of a text that are associated with a particular writer, speaker, knowledge worker . . . or discourse community/community of practice.how a text is composed as opposed to...

    Published on Sep 09th 2019

  171. Styles of Writing

    What are Styles of Writing? Styles of Writing (aka Types of Writing or Prose Styles) are the linguistic and semantic conventions that characterize a writer's work or the work of multiple writers a subject of studyCorpus linguists engage in qualitative research and quantitative research regarding language use. Fiction writers study the work of other novelists and short story writers working...

    Published on Jul 26th 2020

  172. Subject-Verb Agreement

    Subject-verb agreement happens when the subject and verb of a clause agree in number. For the subject and verb to agree, both must be either singular or plural. A single relationship lies at the heart of every sentence in the English language. Like an indivisible nucleus at the center of an atom, the subject-verb pair unifies the sentence. It can...

    Published on Jul 17th 2012

  173. Subject, Topic

    Colloquially, the terms Subject(s) as well as Topic(s) may be used interchangeably to mean what a message is about, the subject matter of a texta branch of knowledge; the categories dictionaries and encyclopedias use to sort information. However, in the discipline of Writing Studies and other academic settings, these terms may be differentiated from one another: the term Subject(s) may...

    Published on Aug 07th 2019

  174. Subjects & Concepts

    Understand why analytical and explanatory writing is one of the most important genres of writing in school and professional careers. Read a variety of analytical and explanatory reports, noting the diversity of audiences, purposes, contexts, media, voices, tone, and personas. Understand the defining characteristics of texts that analyze or explain concepts. Why Write About Subjects and Concepts? Writers within disciplines...

    Published on Dec 28th 2009

  175. Subordinating Conjunctions

    A subordinating conjunction connects an independent clause to a dependent (subordinate) clause: an independent clause is a sentence that is a complete thought and therefore can stand aloneExample: I survived the class.a dependent clause is an incomplete sentence, a fragment. It cannot express a complete thought. It cannot be punctuated as a sentence. Example: Although I survived the class. Key...

    Published on Feb 24th 2020

  176. Substantive Prose Style

    Substantive Prose is a style of academic and professional discourse. Prose that is characterized as substantive tends to be evidence basedevidence is provided for claimsevidence is sourcedinterestinginsightful. People who can produce substantive prose are thought leaders, knowledge workers, rhetorician, symbol analysts. Key Words: Inductive and Deductive Reasoning Substantive Prose tends to be grammatically correctuse an appropriate level of diction for...

    Published on Jan 13th 2020

  177. Summary

    Summaries tend to be interpretive. They give the author's critical evaluation of the source. Would your summary differ, for example, from the following summary of The Wizard of Oz? Transported to a surreal landscape, a young girl kills the first woman she meets and then teams up with three complete strangers to kill again. Like paraphrasing, summarizing involves reporting someone else's ideas...

    Published on May 25th 2011

  178. Survey Academic Research Communities

    Analyze research practices from a community perspective, and learn about the methodological assumptions of scholars, surveyors, scientists, formalists, clinicians, and ethnographers. Researchers in workplace and academic settings have diverse and sometimes opposing ways of researching and making knowledge claims. In general, researchers in the natural sciences tend to prefer positivistic methodologies and researchers in social and behavioral sciences have increasingly...

    Published on Oct 02nd 2010

  179. The Writing Log

    Rather than waiting for that illusive large block of time and rather than procrastinating until the last minute to begin researching and writing, you can ensure your success by using small blocks of time to accomplish your research and writing goals. There are serious disadvantages to binge writing as opposed to regular writing as research has demonstrated. First, binge writing...

    Published on Sep 10th 2014

  180. Timelines & Flow Charts

    Use visual brainstorming to develop and organize your ideas. In 1765, Joseph Priestly created the now commonplace timeline. Priestly's timeline depicted the lifespan of 2000 inventors whom he considered the "most distinguished in the annals of fame." In technical documents as well as magazine articles, timeline flow charts are exceedingly popular. Readers love chronological timelines, which graphically chart the emergence...

    Published on Oct 31st 2009

  181. Title

    Where is the paper’s title? Choose an original title for the paper Center the title Present the title in plain type Use standard capitalization in the title

    Published on Mar 30th 2012

  182. Topic Sentences & Paragraph Development

    A topic sentence summarizes the main idea or the purpose of a paragraph. In an essay, topic sentences serve an organizational purpose similar to a thesis statement but on a smaller scale; a topic sentence helps guide the organization of a single paragraph while a thesis statement guides the organization of the entire essay. A topic sentence may be placed...

    Published on Jun 29th 2012

  183. Tough, Sweet, & Stuffy Prose Styles

    What are Tough, Sweet & Stuffy Prose Styles? In 1966, Walker Gibson theorized "the way we write at any given moment can be seen as an adjustment or compromise among these three styles of identifying ourselves and defining our relation with others": The Tough Talker"The Tough Talker, in these terms, is a man dramatized as centrally concerned with himself --...

    Published on Nov 06th 2021

  184. Transitional Language, Metalanguage, Segues

    Transitional language, Metalanguage, and Segues refer to words, phrases, and sentences that people use to illustrate relationships among specific ideas and the overall thesis: Transitional language includes words, phrases, and sentences that writers use to help their readers make connections across ideas. Writers use transitional words like for example, as a result, and therefore to help readers understand how new...

    Published on Nov 16th 2019

  185. Unity @ the Paragraph Level

    Readers can generally follow the logic of a discussion better when a paragraph is unified by a single purpose. Paragraphs that lack a central idea and that wander from subject to subject are apt to confuse readers, making them wonder what they should pay attention to and why. Paragraphs need to stay focused on one topic. A good way to...

    Published on May 09th 2011

  186. Using Databases: Periodical Indexes and Abstracts

    Search magazine articles, research reports, journal articles, and abstracts published in magazines, newspapers, and scholarly journals. Magazines, newspapers, and scholarly journals provide contemporary material that is often on very narrow topics. Magazines are written in a more popular style and aimed at a general audience. The term “journals” is used for scholarly research publications. Librarians use the term “periodicals” to...

    Published on Mar 05th 2010

  187. Vague Language, Generalizations

    Vague Language refers to language that is underdeveloped, lacks substance, and is needlessly abstracthas an excessive number of non-specific adjectives like good, bad, okay, pretty, happy, and sad, which give an audience only a superficial and general sense of emotion or description.lacks concrete and sensory languageuses qualifiers like sort of, kind of, and generally without further explanation. Vague Generalizations refers...

    Published on Mar 01st 2020

  188. Verb-Tense Shift

    A verb-tense shift occurs when a writer changes tense within a single piece of writing. Tense is the term for what time frame verbs refer to. Standard American English has a number of tenses, each of which is a variation on past, present, or future. Any switching of tense within a sentence, paragraph, or longer piece of writing is a...

    Published on Feb 24th 2020

  189. Video

    Add video to enrich or supplant printed texts. New communication technologies enable authors to incorporate streaming multimedia into their webs. Writers may provide video to: Underscore the content of the print text, illustrating key concepts.  For example, an agency hoping to secure funds for hungry people could show video of their living conditions. Illustrate the content of the printed text. ...

    Published on Nov 01st 2009

  190. Visual Brainstorming

    Visual Brainstorming is the process of using elements of visual language to develop, organize, and communicate ideas.Visual language refers to a writers', speakers', knowledge workers' . . . use of design elements, design principles, design tools, and data visualization methods to draft ideas for a text. Examples of Visual Brainstorming include a writer's sketch of their plan for organizing a...

    Published on Oct 31st 2009

  191. What is Plagiarism?

    Plagiarism involves The theft of someone else's wordsThe theft of someone else's ideasThe failure to properly cite someone's ideas, either directly or in a paraphrase. Plagiarism can be deliberate or the result of carelessness. When incorporating outside sources, it’s important to be conscious of what constitutes plagiarism and to avoid plagiarizing material. Ignorance of plagiarism and intellectual property is a serious...

    Published on Feb 26th 2020

  192. When is the Active Voice Preferable to the Passive Voice?

    In general, you can make your writing more persuasive, clear, and concise by using the active voice rather than the passive voice. There are instances, however, when the passive voice is preferable to the active voice, as discussed below. What are the Active and Passive Voices? Essentially, a verb is active when its subject performs the action. A verb is...

    Published on Oct 31st 2009

  193. Why Should I Keep a Writer’s Log?

    Realize your creative potential and avoid procrastination by logging your work. You can be more productive and make writing less adverse if you write in brief daily sessions. By keeping a log of your writing efforts, you can: Motivate yourself. By tracking your accomplishments on a daily basis, you can develop a better sense of how research efforts and invention...

    Published on Oct 28th 2009

  194. Writer-Based Prose Style

    Writer-Based Prose Style is writing that is intended for the writer as opposed to the reader.a unique style of writing that plays an important role in thinking and creativity. Texts that are classified as writer-based prose use abbreviated, self-centered, informal, vague language—i.e., language that is personally meaningful to the writer but not the readerimages, drawings, sketches, and other forms of...

    Published on Feb 22nd 2020

  195. Writing Cover Letters

    When reading cover letters, the key benchmark I use is simple: Do I get to know both the person and the professional? As we read a cover letter, we should have a sense that no other candidate could have written this particular document in this particular way. Hence, we respect and honor the individual. In conversation, the term “cover letter”...

    Published on Oct 31st 2013

  196. Writing Studies

    What is Writing Studies? Writing Studies is the study of writing, especially composing, composing processes, rhetoric, and writing pedagogyan interdisciplinary academic field that boasts undergraduate writing departments, master's degrees, and doctoral degrees at many U.S. institutions. Related Concepts: Discourse Community, Community of Practice Synonymous Terms: Writing Studies is a broad, nascent term that may be used interchangeably with Rhetoric &...

    Published on Sep 28th 2019